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Week 13 zoo notes

by: Hannah Kirby

Week 13 zoo notes BIOL 1114, 001

Hannah Kirby
GPA 3.1

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Notes from week 13 of lecture
Intro to zoology
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Monday April 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to zoology in Biology at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 04/25/16
Week 13 zoo notes­ Hormones Complete hormone negative feedback system  Hypothalamus  Anterior pituitary  Posterior pituitary  Endocrine glands Hormones­ slow, lasting communication  ­Affect mood, emotions, feelings of sexual attraction, and developmental patterns, among other processes A neurohormone is a hormone that is secreted by a nerve cell Two regions of pituitary gland: 1) Posterior pituitary a. Hormones produced by hypothalamus; posterior releases b. Does not produce its own hormones 2) Anterior pituitary (glands) a. Neurons release hormones that travel from hypo to ant, activate glands and  secrete hormones b. Responds to hormones from hypothalamus  c. Produces and releases its own hormones Posterior: Directly target tissues Anterior: directly target tissues or other endocrine glands (glands secrete final hormone) If hormones from hypo are not triggering the reaction in the anterior, those hormones get  passed along with the hormone from the ant. Figure 28.4 Anterior: Hypothalamus can stimulate/inhibit the anterior pituitary gland (focus on releasing  hormones) Proteins and Peptide hormones (water soluble) Know that there are inhibiting hormones, but don’t worry about specific ones GH, Prolactin, TSH, ACTH, FSH/LH, Endorphins Final hormones (directly target other tissues), Tropic hormones (target other glands) Posterior­ ADH, oxytocin Hormones from the hypothalamus are stored and released into the blood by the posterior  pituitary gland Hormones produced at anterior can be either final hormones or tropic hormones (target other  glands) Example: Thyroid hormone  Thyroid hormones (T4/T3) target many cells  Increase metabolism  TRH comes from hypo; TSH from anterior; T3/T4 from thyroid o Too much t3/t4, some goes back to hypothalamus, some goes to body Hypothalamus anterior pituitary thyroid gland Hormone level too high hypo decreases TRH secretion, pituitary decreases TSH  thyroid decreases TH secretion TH level decreases Hormone level too low hypo increases TRH, Pituitary increases TSH thyroid increases TH secretion TH level increases Thyrotropin­releasing hormone (TRH) > TSH > TH (Thyroid Hormone) Under vs overproduction: low vs high metabolism Hypothyroidism (too cold all the time), hyperthyroidism (too hot all the time) Stimulating hormone will physically stimulate a gland to get larger  Release and function of: (from anterior pituitary)  Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) aka vasopressin  Oxytocin  Growth hormone (GH)  Prolactin  Endorphins  Cortisol  Thyroid hormones (TH)  Testosterone/ Estrogen Example: Leptin  Secreted by adipocytes  Suppresses appetite   It triggers the switch between “starving” and “fed” states  Stimulates the Hypothalamic­Pituitary­Thyroid axis (HPT)  Increases metabolism  Posterior Pituitary gland:  Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) aka vasopressin: tells kidneys to retain water; suppresses  urination o Alcohol inhibits hypothalamus from secreting ADH  Oxytocin: “bonding hormone” o Secrete milk from mammary glands  o Induces contractions of the uterus during childbirth Hypothalamus  anterior pituitary  Releasing hormones (­RH) stimulate anterior pituitary  Anterior pituitary responds to hypothalamus by: 1) Secreting final hormones 2) Secreting tropic hormones that stimulate other glands that secrete the final hormone a. Tropic­ TSH, ACTH, FSH/ LH b. Final­ GH, prolactin, endorphins GH releasing hormones (GHRH) > GH (growth hormone) Under­ or overproduction: abnormally large or small individuals  Promotes: protein synthesis, cell division (growth and repair), bone “growth” (pre vs post  puberty, growth means different) How tall you are: determined by GH levels during puberty GH during adulthood? Hyper­secretions of GH, causes thickening of bones (acromegaly)  GH stimulates liver to secrete insulin­like growth factor (IGF­1)  Both GH and IGF­1 work together to promote “growth”  Growth can be retarded­ undernutrition (glucose), GH insensitivity, disrupted sleep  (melatonin), stress (cortisol) Hypothalamic signal > prolactin  Under­ or overproduction: less vs more prolactin Endorphins  Under­ or overproduction: depression vs feeling happy; natural pain killers Corticotropin­ releasing hormone (CRH) > ACTH > Cortisol Gonadotropin releasing hormone GnRH > LH > Testosterone Under or overproduction: lots of effects depending on age GnRH > LH/FSH > Estrogen/progesterone  Fluctuation in levels: dictates menstrual cycle and ovulation in women How to link tumors to hormones?   Functional benign tumor on pituitary gland is called pituitary adenoma (grows larger) o This growth can result in hyper secretion of hormones o Tumor can prevent gland from responding to negative feedback signals


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