Week 13 zoo notes
Week 13 zoo notes BIOL 1114, 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Monday April 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to zoology in Biology at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
Week 13 zoo notes Hormones Complete hormone negative feedback system Hypothalamus Anterior pituitary Posterior pituitary Endocrine glands Hormones slow, lasting communication Affect mood, emotions, feelings of sexual attraction, and developmental patterns, among other processes A neurohormone is a hormone that is secreted by a nerve cell Two regions of pituitary gland: 1) Posterior pituitary a. Hormones produced by hypothalamus; posterior releases b. Does not produce its own hormones 2) Anterior pituitary (glands) a. Neurons release hormones that travel from hypo to ant, activate glands and secrete hormones b. Responds to hormones from hypothalamus c. Produces and releases its own hormones Posterior: Directly target tissues Anterior: directly target tissues or other endocrine glands (glands secrete final hormone) If hormones from hypo are not triggering the reaction in the anterior, those hormones get passed along with the hormone from the ant. Figure 28.4 Anterior: Hypothalamus can stimulate/inhibit the anterior pituitary gland (focus on releasing hormones) Proteins and Peptide hormones (water soluble) Know that there are inhibiting hormones, but don’t worry about specific ones GH, Prolactin, TSH, ACTH, FSH/LH, Endorphins Final hormones (directly target other tissues), Tropic hormones (target other glands) Posterior ADH, oxytocin Hormones from the hypothalamus are stored and released into the blood by the posterior pituitary gland Hormones produced at anterior can be either final hormones or tropic hormones (target other glands) Example: Thyroid hormone Thyroid hormones (T4/T3) target many cells Increase metabolism TRH comes from hypo; TSH from anterior; T3/T4 from thyroid o Too much t3/t4, some goes back to hypothalamus, some goes to body Hypothalamus anterior pituitary thyroid gland Hormone level too high hypo decreases TRH secretion, pituitary decreases TSH thyroid decreases TH secretion TH level decreases Hormone level too low hypo increases TRH, Pituitary increases TSH thyroid increases TH secretion TH level increases Thyrotropinreleasing hormone (TRH) > TSH > TH (Thyroid Hormone) Under vs overproduction: low vs high metabolism Hypothyroidism (too cold all the time), hyperthyroidism (too hot all the time) Stimulating hormone will physically stimulate a gland to get larger Release and function of: (from anterior pituitary) Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) aka vasopressin Oxytocin Growth hormone (GH) Prolactin Endorphins Cortisol Thyroid hormones (TH) Testosterone/ Estrogen Example: Leptin Secreted by adipocytes Suppresses appetite It triggers the switch between “starving” and “fed” states Stimulates the HypothalamicPituitaryThyroid axis (HPT) Increases metabolism Posterior Pituitary gland: Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) aka vasopressin: tells kidneys to retain water; suppresses urination o Alcohol inhibits hypothalamus from secreting ADH Oxytocin: “bonding hormone” o Secrete milk from mammary glands o Induces contractions of the uterus during childbirth Hypothalamus anterior pituitary Releasing hormones (RH) stimulate anterior pituitary Anterior pituitary responds to hypothalamus by: 1) Secreting final hormones 2) Secreting tropic hormones that stimulate other glands that secrete the final hormone a. Tropic TSH, ACTH, FSH/ LH b. Final GH, prolactin, endorphins GH releasing hormones (GHRH) > GH (growth hormone) Under or overproduction: abnormally large or small individuals Promotes: protein synthesis, cell division (growth and repair), bone “growth” (pre vs post puberty, growth means different) How tall you are: determined by GH levels during puberty GH during adulthood? Hypersecretions of GH, causes thickening of bones (acromegaly) GH stimulates liver to secrete insulinlike growth factor (IGF1) Both GH and IGF1 work together to promote “growth” Growth can be retarded undernutrition (glucose), GH insensitivity, disrupted sleep (melatonin), stress (cortisol) Hypothalamic signal > prolactin Under or overproduction: less vs more prolactin Endorphins Under or overproduction: depression vs feeling happy; natural pain killers Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) > ACTH > Cortisol Gonadotropin releasing hormone GnRH > LH > Testosterone Under or overproduction: lots of effects depending on age GnRH > LH/FSH > Estrogen/progesterone Fluctuation in levels: dictates menstrual cycle and ovulation in women How to link tumors to hormones? Functional benign tumor on pituitary gland is called pituitary adenoma (grows larger) o This growth can result in hyper secretion of hormones o Tumor can prevent gland from responding to negative feedback signals
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