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Week 13 Psych notes

by: Hannah Kirby

Week 13 Psych notes PSY 2603

Hannah Kirby
GPA 3.1

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Notes from week 13 of Lifespan Development
Developmental Psychology
Lara Mayeux
Class Notes
Lifespan, development, Psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Monday April 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2603 at University of Oklahoma taught by Lara Mayeux in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 04/25/16
Week 13 Psych notes Continuing chapter 13: Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning  Type of reasoning: preconventional o Behavior driven by rewards and punishments o Stage 1: heteronomous morality­ only act prosocially to avoid being punished  o Stage 2: equal exchange­ act prosocially because they think they will be  rewarded; reciprocity  Second type of reasoning: conventional reasoning o Child follows standards/ rules, but they are the rules of someone else (parents,  teachers, law) o Stage 3: interpersonal expectations­ living up to someone’s expectations, wanting  them to see them as good o Stage 4: social systems morality­ seeing necessity of rules and how they protect  everyone, keep everyone in line  Post conventional reasoning o Internalization of societal rules, development of personal moral codes o Stage 5: social contract o Stage 6: universal ethical principles Empathy:  Cognitive component: perspective taking o Being able to understand another person’s point of view  Emotional component: personal distress o Experiencing the negative emotions that the other person must be feeling o Can also be positive emotions  Is it necessary for prosocial behavior? o Depends: inverted U­shaped relationship  Little empathy: low prosocial behavior   Lots of empathy: tend to show more prosocial behavior   Too much empathy: vicarious traumatization­ experiencing the same level  of trauma as the person sharing their experience Empathy development in children who are abused:  Main and George (1985) o 20 disadvantaged 1­3 year olds (10 abused, 10 Nonabused) o 4 half­hour observations at nursery school over the course of 3 months  Coded for responses to distressed peers  Categories of responses: looks, interest, mechanical or physical  comforting, concern, fearful distress, threatening, physically attacking,  malicious, diffuse anger  None of the abused toddlers ever showed any true concern over peers  distress  Nonabused toddlers did show concern  Abused toddlers often responded with fear, physical attack, anger  Nonabused children didn’t   Sometimes abused toddlers would alternately attack and mechanically  comfort the child  Conclusion­ children who are not shown empathy and affection will either have inhibited  development of empathy, or will not develop.  Chapter 13: Aggression  Instrumental­ aggressing for the purpose of obtaining a toy or possession  Hostile­ aggressing simply to hurt the other person o Criticizing, ridiculing, name­calling, physical attack  Reactive­ a response to being attacked, threatened, or frustrated   Proactive­ using force to dominate another person or to bully and threaten them o Proactive kids usually grow out of this phase, not a lot of negative outcomes o Reactive kids­ sometimes see long­term continuation, problems with emotion  regulation and anger management o Proactive is often premeditated, planned  Relational­ using the threat of damage to another person’s interpersonal relationships to  manipulate or gain something o Gossip, rumors, exclusion from activities, “I won’t be your friend anymore if  you…” “You can’t come to my birthday party” Developmental changes in aggression  Toddlers: rely heavily on physical attacks to obtain toys, possessions  Older children: use their language skills to verbally assault or threaten others  Preschool: very overt, verbal, dyadic (between two people)  As children get older: becomes more covert, difficult to detect o Involves larger peer group Origins of aggressive behavior:  Biological influences:  Testosterone= aggression? o Boys with higher levels of testosterone…  Rated themselves as more likely to respond aggressively to provocations  Were more impatient and irritable in lab settings o Same effect for girls?  Estradiol   More aggressive verbally in lab setting Family influences:  Some evidence that insecure (especially disorganized) attachment is linked to later  aggressive behavior o Especially when the child faces other risk factors (home environment,  temperament, etc.)  Teaching young boys to defend themselves o “be a man” o Aggressogenic socialization  Parental fighting/ arguing o Models aggressive behavior for children  Parental use of power­assertive discipline  o Especially physical punishment, when in conjunction with low parental warmth  Patterson­ longitudinal study of boys’ aggression o Found differences in the home environments of aggressive children  Lack of monitoring from parents Peer group influences:  Deviancy training­ changing a benign topic to a way to form negative drama, sparks  negative behavior  Peer status­ likeability vs. power­ popular kids are more aggressive  o Particularly relational aggression o Status maintenance? o Power­ tend to be more aggressive, possibly risen out of competition Conduct disorder:  Age­inappropriate actions that violate family/societal norms, rights of others  Typical behaviors include: o Swearing excessively, tantrums, acting out, assault, theft, vandalism  Boys > girls   5% kids and teens get diagnosed  Developmental aggression o Many (50%) children break rules sometimes (self­reported) o When does it become a real problem? 1. Is it getting worse over time? 2. Is it causing problems for functioning? (getting suspended, grounded, etc.) 3. How severe is it? How badly are they violating norms, laws? Juvenile Delinquency:  “Any behavior that gets you involved in the legal system”  very broad  Two kinds of offenses­ o Index­ illegal no matter the age (ex: robbery, aggravated assault, rape, murder) o Status­ only criminal if at a certain age  Minors­ acts performed while under age (ex: running away from home,  drinking, smoking, truancy, sexual behavior)  Majority of cases perpetrated by males o This number is stable/declining  o Acts by females is increasing  Three developmental pathways to delinquency: o Authority conflict:  Childhood stubbornness  Adolescent defiance, avoidance of authority o Covert acts:  Lying property damage, minor, then serious delinquent acts o Overt acts:  Minor aggression  violence  Timing matters:  “Adolescence limited” – minor theft, vandalism, truancy that starts during  adolescence   “Life course persistent” ­ more serious crimes, higher frequency Chapter 15: Peers and friends  Peer relationships  Friendships  Developmental changes Why study peer relationships?   Time spent with peers (more) vs adults (less)  Role of peers in the development of the self  Peers as agents of socialization  Peer relationships as predictors of long­term outcomes Levels of analysis:  Individual  o Behaviors (aggression, cooperation) o Personality characteristics (hostility, introverted/ extroverted)  Dyad o Friendships (starting in early school years) o Interactions between two people  o Romantic partners o Enemies  Group (especially in adolescence) o Cliques o Crowds – members share a defining feature Sociometric Status What is it?  How liked or disliked a child or teen is by their peer group as a whole  Based on child’s peer group (usually at school) Tells us­  Child’s social competence  Behaviors, thoughts, emotions  Level of withdrawal or sociability Five status categories:  Popular­ liked by many, disliked by few  Rejected­ liked by few, disliked by many  Neglected­ not nominated as liked or disliked  Controversial­ liked by many, disliked by many  Average­ everyone else  Behavioral correlates of peer status­  What are sociometrically popular kids like? o Easy going, happy, lots of friends  What are rejected kids like? Heterogeneity: differences within group o Some are aggressive and destructive o Some are socially withdrawn, anxious o Some have obsessive habits, poor emotion regulation, poor sanitary habits, etc.   Are these kids rejected because of their characteristics? Or are their  behaviors due to being rejected? Short term consequences of being rejected:  Continued rejection (due to reputational bias)  Loneliness, social isolation o Worse for nonaggressive rejected children than for aggressive­rejected ones  Poorer social skills than other children o Due to lack of interaction  Lower academic achievement Long term consequences of being rejected:  Causal model of peer relationships o Poor status causes later maladjustment   Incidental model of peer relationships o Rejection is a symptom of bigger problem that has lasting effects  Outcomes associated with low peer status  o Dropout o Unemployment o Criminal activity  o Early pregnancy Perceived popularity  NOT sociometric popularity o Sociometric popularity­ who people like o Perceived popularity­ who is “cool”  Lots of social dominance o High status o High social visibility within peer group o High levels of influence (people go along with them­ positive or negative)  What are these adolescents like? o Heterogeneity here, too:  Popular­ prosocial  Popular­ antisocial  How do their peers view them? o Often disliked, yet have a lot of power o Popular antisocial had more power o Some peers want to be part of that “group,” others do not  How do they view themselves? o Variability in status awareness  Gender differences o Popular boys = also well liked  Friendly, cooperative  Good leaders o Popular girls= more likely to be disliked  Manipulative, lots of relational aggression  Romantic rivals  Peers influence on each other  Conformity itself does not change much over time; conformity to antisocial behaviors  does o Increases steadily between grade 3 and 9, peaks at about age 15, then declines  Supportive peers + low parental involvement/ support = greatest likelihood of antisocial  conformity  Best friends are more influential than other peer group members  Boys are more susceptible to antisocial influence than girls are  Parental monitoring, involvement can reduce the impact of peer influence


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