Week 13 Psych notes
Week 13 Psych notes PSY 2603
Popular in Developmental Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Monday April 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2603 at University of Oklahoma taught by Lara Mayeux in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
Week 13 Psych notes Continuing chapter 13: Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning Type of reasoning: preconventional o Behavior driven by rewards and punishments o Stage 1: heteronomous morality only act prosocially to avoid being punished o Stage 2: equal exchange act prosocially because they think they will be rewarded; reciprocity Second type of reasoning: conventional reasoning o Child follows standards/ rules, but they are the rules of someone else (parents, teachers, law) o Stage 3: interpersonal expectations living up to someone’s expectations, wanting them to see them as good o Stage 4: social systems morality seeing necessity of rules and how they protect everyone, keep everyone in line Post conventional reasoning o Internalization of societal rules, development of personal moral codes o Stage 5: social contract o Stage 6: universal ethical principles Empathy: Cognitive component: perspective taking o Being able to understand another person’s point of view Emotional component: personal distress o Experiencing the negative emotions that the other person must be feeling o Can also be positive emotions Is it necessary for prosocial behavior? o Depends: inverted Ushaped relationship Little empathy: low prosocial behavior Lots of empathy: tend to show more prosocial behavior Too much empathy: vicarious traumatization experiencing the same level of trauma as the person sharing their experience Empathy development in children who are abused: Main and George (1985) o 20 disadvantaged 13 year olds (10 abused, 10 Nonabused) o 4 halfhour observations at nursery school over the course of 3 months Coded for responses to distressed peers Categories of responses: looks, interest, mechanical or physical comforting, concern, fearful distress, threatening, physically attacking, malicious, diffuse anger None of the abused toddlers ever showed any true concern over peers distress Nonabused toddlers did show concern Abused toddlers often responded with fear, physical attack, anger Nonabused children didn’t Sometimes abused toddlers would alternately attack and mechanically comfort the child Conclusion children who are not shown empathy and affection will either have inhibited development of empathy, or will not develop. Chapter 13: Aggression Instrumental aggressing for the purpose of obtaining a toy or possession Hostile aggressing simply to hurt the other person o Criticizing, ridiculing, namecalling, physical attack Reactive a response to being attacked, threatened, or frustrated Proactive using force to dominate another person or to bully and threaten them o Proactive kids usually grow out of this phase, not a lot of negative outcomes o Reactive kids sometimes see longterm continuation, problems with emotion regulation and anger management o Proactive is often premeditated, planned Relational using the threat of damage to another person’s interpersonal relationships to manipulate or gain something o Gossip, rumors, exclusion from activities, “I won’t be your friend anymore if you…” “You can’t come to my birthday party” Developmental changes in aggression Toddlers: rely heavily on physical attacks to obtain toys, possessions Older children: use their language skills to verbally assault or threaten others Preschool: very overt, verbal, dyadic (between two people) As children get older: becomes more covert, difficult to detect o Involves larger peer group Origins of aggressive behavior: Biological influences: Testosterone= aggression? o Boys with higher levels of testosterone… Rated themselves as more likely to respond aggressively to provocations Were more impatient and irritable in lab settings o Same effect for girls? Estradiol More aggressive verbally in lab setting Family influences: Some evidence that insecure (especially disorganized) attachment is linked to later aggressive behavior o Especially when the child faces other risk factors (home environment, temperament, etc.) Teaching young boys to defend themselves o “be a man” o Aggressogenic socialization Parental fighting/ arguing o Models aggressive behavior for children Parental use of powerassertive discipline o Especially physical punishment, when in conjunction with low parental warmth Patterson longitudinal study of boys’ aggression o Found differences in the home environments of aggressive children Lack of monitoring from parents Peer group influences: Deviancy training changing a benign topic to a way to form negative drama, sparks negative behavior Peer status likeability vs. power popular kids are more aggressive o Particularly relational aggression o Status maintenance? o Power tend to be more aggressive, possibly risen out of competition Conduct disorder: Ageinappropriate actions that violate family/societal norms, rights of others Typical behaviors include: o Swearing excessively, tantrums, acting out, assault, theft, vandalism Boys > girls 5% kids and teens get diagnosed Developmental aggression o Many (50%) children break rules sometimes (selfreported) o When does it become a real problem? 1. Is it getting worse over time? 2. Is it causing problems for functioning? (getting suspended, grounded, etc.) 3. How severe is it? How badly are they violating norms, laws? Juvenile Delinquency: “Any behavior that gets you involved in the legal system” very broad Two kinds of offenses o Index illegal no matter the age (ex: robbery, aggravated assault, rape, murder) o Status only criminal if at a certain age Minors acts performed while under age (ex: running away from home, drinking, smoking, truancy, sexual behavior) Majority of cases perpetrated by males o This number is stable/declining o Acts by females is increasing Three developmental pathways to delinquency: o Authority conflict: Childhood stubbornness Adolescent defiance, avoidance of authority o Covert acts: Lying property damage, minor, then serious delinquent acts o Overt acts: Minor aggression violence Timing matters: “Adolescence limited” – minor theft, vandalism, truancy that starts during adolescence “Life course persistent” more serious crimes, higher frequency Chapter 15: Peers and friends Peer relationships Friendships Developmental changes Why study peer relationships? Time spent with peers (more) vs adults (less) Role of peers in the development of the self Peers as agents of socialization Peer relationships as predictors of longterm outcomes Levels of analysis: Individual o Behaviors (aggression, cooperation) o Personality characteristics (hostility, introverted/ extroverted) Dyad o Friendships (starting in early school years) o Interactions between two people o Romantic partners o Enemies Group (especially in adolescence) o Cliques o Crowds – members share a defining feature Sociometric Status What is it? How liked or disliked a child or teen is by their peer group as a whole Based on child’s peer group (usually at school) Tells us Child’s social competence Behaviors, thoughts, emotions Level of withdrawal or sociability Five status categories: Popular liked by many, disliked by few Rejected liked by few, disliked by many Neglected not nominated as liked or disliked Controversial liked by many, disliked by many Average everyone else Behavioral correlates of peer status What are sociometrically popular kids like? o Easy going, happy, lots of friends What are rejected kids like? Heterogeneity: differences within group o Some are aggressive and destructive o Some are socially withdrawn, anxious o Some have obsessive habits, poor emotion regulation, poor sanitary habits, etc. Are these kids rejected because of their characteristics? Or are their behaviors due to being rejected? Short term consequences of being rejected: Continued rejection (due to reputational bias) Loneliness, social isolation o Worse for nonaggressive rejected children than for aggressiverejected ones Poorer social skills than other children o Due to lack of interaction Lower academic achievement Long term consequences of being rejected: Causal model of peer relationships o Poor status causes later maladjustment Incidental model of peer relationships o Rejection is a symptom of bigger problem that has lasting effects Outcomes associated with low peer status o Dropout o Unemployment o Criminal activity o Early pregnancy Perceived popularity NOT sociometric popularity o Sociometric popularity who people like o Perceived popularity who is “cool” Lots of social dominance o High status o High social visibility within peer group o High levels of influence (people go along with them positive or negative) What are these adolescents like? o Heterogeneity here, too: Popular prosocial Popular antisocial How do their peers view them? o Often disliked, yet have a lot of power o Popular antisocial had more power o Some peers want to be part of that “group,” others do not How do they view themselves? o Variability in status awareness Gender differences o Popular boys = also well liked Friendly, cooperative Good leaders o Popular girls= more likely to be disliked Manipulative, lots of relational aggression Romantic rivals Peers influence on each other Conformity itself does not change much over time; conformity to antisocial behaviors does o Increases steadily between grade 3 and 9, peaks at about age 15, then declines Supportive peers + low parental involvement/ support = greatest likelihood of antisocial conformity Best friends are more influential than other peer group members Boys are more susceptible to antisocial influence than girls are Parental monitoring, involvement can reduce the impact of peer influence
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