Chapter 10- Constructivism
Chapter 10- Constructivism EDP 301
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Texana Sonnefeld on Saturday March 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EDP 301 at University of Arizona taught by Heidi Burross in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 194 views. For similar materials see Child development in Educational Psychology at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 03/07/15
Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer Constructing Knowledge CHAPTER 10 Objectives Discuss theories of constructivism with associated theorists Identify and distinguish among types of concepts Consider methods for promoting concept formation Examine cooperative learning processes and programs Describe considerations in groups work Constructivism I What is constructivism Theory of learning that focuses on internal and external building learning individuals build their own understandings and experiences of learning I Assumptions I Experts have deep conceptual knowledge expert get the concepts that they re experts in Learning comes from the learner individual is responsible for their own concepts taking away different levels of understanding I I Prior knowledge is key based on your own background and prior experiences key to learning new information I Re ection is necessary for conceptual knowledge have to re ect in order to build concepts making it your own I Two basic types I Cognitive constructivism individual I Social constructivism still internal but acknowledgement of learning environment Piaget s cognitive constructivism individual manipulating their environment I Child as a little scientist little explorer if you let a child figure things out for themselves then they will explore and try to figure out their world basis for lifelong learning and constructivism I Schemas our understandings of concepts how we make sense of our world I Equilibration balance what we know and what we learn should be balanced should disrupt their understandings so we have to rebalance looking at new information I Assimilation put together take on bring in make it a part of the understanding of your base knowledge Second letter in assimilation S SAME I Accommodation changingmodifying something you already know to help you distinguish the two forces you to change something you already knew Second letter in accommodation C CHANGE Conceptual understanding Burross H 2015 Feb 23 Chapter 10 Constructivism University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer What are concepts Ideas mental categories framework for organizing and understanding experiences Concept formation Identify the features of a concept Cat features uffy nails purr pointy ears etc Define the concept and give clear examples Take features and create a definition of cat 3 Concept maps offer a visual representation of a concept s hierarchical organization Develop a map of features and related things such as dogs or animals 4 Develop hypotheses about what the concept is and what it is not Develop hypothesis and a comparison of things such as cats vs dogs what features are and aren t present etc 5 Prototype matching compares the item with similar items in a category Set up prototype model or example of that concept as you encounter new concepts you will form more doesn t have to be an image words quotes etc Ex A lion is also a cat 3 Jr A Sample concept map Types of concepts I These are classifications for some concepts but not all fit these and some may be combinations of the classifications mix and match I Conjunctive joined two things have to be in order to t that concept Success money happiness I Disjunctive m definitionclassification can fit one I the other can be more than one as well ex Move in checkers move one space or taking another checker away from the opponent Success money or happiness I Relational includes some aspect ex your concept of making a lot of money it has to be more than your best friend makes relational Ex distance to something is far based on your definition of what far is Success make more money than my best friend Promoting concept formation I Use the ruleexample strategy give examples to help understanding I Help students learn what a concept is and what it is not differences and distinctions between concepts why is a dog not a cat Burross H 2015 Feb 23 Chapter 10 Constructivism University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer Provide clear concrete examples Relate new concepts to alreadyknown concepts building on old concepts Create concepts maps have them make their own concept maps and their comparisons Generate hypotheses about concepts if we know what the rules are for this feature have them predict what would change if you changed an aspect of the concept Prototype matching single digits rules to double digits rules Check for understanding and generalization making sure their building understanding correctly build strong foundations so that you don t have to tear down foundation and rebuild later Some reasons for misconceptions I Prior experience students who had poor instruction misinterpretations ex poor illustration in a textbook I Appearances judging a book by its cover judgments based on their concepts that are formed from a very young age if you don t have a lot of experience yet it can be hard and confusing ex Gender male with long hair is confusing I Society culture can lead to misconception religious beliefs value of specific people I Language interpretation and translation differences even within the same language tone different word definitions slang Vygotsky s social cognition environment acting on the learner I Learning is a social process What you learn depends on from and with whom you learn it differences in who you re with where you sit etc Build a shared meaning through social negotiation who is learning what is going to be learned how its going to be learned The learner is responsible for their own understanding and learning individual still takes responsibility on how they learn Scaffolding building something new structure around it to reach higher levels ex Have to teach addition and subtraction before multiplication and division strong foundation with strong supports that allows the learner to build a strong building understanding after learning the scaffolding is taken away gradual release of responsibility to the learner ex Riding a bike training wheels parent holding on then they let go training wheels get taken off Approaches to social constructivism I Cognitive apprenticeship have true expert and a novice not struggling that wants to be a skilled expert as well I Tutoring having peers working together one is more advanced than the other to help less advanced student who is struggling I Service learning volunteering and learning in the process Burross H 2015 Feb 23 Chapter 10 Constructivism University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer I Reciprocal teachingquestioning students pair up and they teach each other ask each other questions both act as teacher and student I Problembased learning tackle real world problems I Virtual experiences allow students to go beyond passive learning I Cooperative learning group work work together on a speci c tasks 2 or more students Cooperative learning research I Research 1995 has shown that cooperative learning works best with 2 conditions I Individual accountability level of responsibility in each individual eX Individual grade components different tasks for each person or you could do roles leader recorder etc I Group rewards group recognition some individual has responsibility but the group will be rewarded afterwards I Benefits of makes big projects more doable reciprocal teaching and learning have to learn con ict resolution be assertive could be more fun more real world you re going to have to work with others in the future I Considerations in you can assign the roles or have students pick at least have roles outlined grading tough identity individual accountability how is evaluation done by the group members other groups presentation process in place for con ict resolution mechanisms in place how to negotiate when to ask for outside help teacher SKIPPED Cooperative learning programs I StudentTeamsAchievement Divisions STAD Slavin 1994 I Jigsaw Aronson amp others 1978 Slavin 1994 I Group Investigation Sharan amp Sharan 1992 I Cooperative Scripting Dansereau 1988 Burross H 2015 Feb 23 Chapter 10 Constructivism University of Arizona Tucson AZ
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