Anthro 131 Week 9 Notes
Anthro 131 Week 9 Notes ANTH131
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kyle Roe on Saturday March 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH131 at a university taught by Gamble in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 207 views.
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Date Created: 03/07/15
Chumash Today Santa Ynez band published dictionary of native language Samala Based on linguistic data collected by John P Harrington and other anthropologists Many Chumash are learning to speak Samala Principal Characteristics of CA Culture Area Huntergatherers living in densely populated towns packed houses situated close to each other 0 Almost all subsistence was based on huntinggathering Acorns very significant stored food resource Fishing very important near rivers and oceans 0 Salmon in central CA 0 Didn t fish very far into the ocean north of the Bay Area due to rough waters 0 Offshore fishing in calmer waters Baskets were important for all subsistence activities 0 Seed beater intensive form of huntinggathering I Beating seeds off the plant into a basket speeding up gathering o Considered prizes by Europeans Clan organization Ranked social statuses 0 Everyone had a special seat in the dancehouse 0 Seating areas defined by class 0 Inherited wealth Political leaders with significant authority 0 Hereditary positions 0 Traits we normally associate with agriculturalists 0 Complex huntergatherer societies Economic exchange through shell bead money 0 Movement between villages of food resources and raw materials Plains Culture Area 2 cultural types on the Plains Equestrian hunters and horticulturalists Precontact and History Horse was essential o Brought over by European Bison focus of subsistence all of precontact era Farming practiced in river valleys over last 1000 years Horses acquired from Spanish began to be used by some Plains groups in the early 1700s 0 Over next century groups living on margins of Plains migrated into Plains 0 Classic Plains Equestrian cultures existed between 1800 and 1870 AD Plains popularized by media are historic shortlived cultural phenomenon o Comanche middle men in horse trade to other tribes Subsistence Bison Bison hunting not as productive before horses Would cause stampedes so they would run themselves off cliffs OlsenChubbuck Site c 8500 BP 0 Bed of bison bones filling an arroyo 0 Could tell which way the wind was blowing opposite direction the bison were driven bison have good sense of smell needed to smell to be blown away from them 0 Crowd behavior one bison runs rest of bison form protective mass and run from perceived threat Flanks of side people directing them to the cliffs so they wouldn t run to the side Goal was to induce the bison to run off a cliff butcher them at the bottom Take best bison parts back 0 Use bison skins for tipis carrying things etc Hunting from a horse meant the hunter could pursue a bison over long distances 0 Used bow and arrows and spears 000 Transportation Horse facilitated movement from camp to camp 0 Most Plains were mobile especially those who focused on hunting bison o Horticulturalists were sedentary Travois carried a family s belongings from one camp to the next 0 Long poles that made a kind of sled o Dragged on the back end of a horse 0 Would transport children goods on the back of travois Bullboats used by groups on or near rivers to cross rivers or transport materials like firewood 0 Most made on wood frame with bison hide 0 Only effective in calm waters 0 Round podlike boats very unique Dwellings Tipi main dwelling used by plains equestrian groups 0 Portable could be quickly erected and taken down 0 Adapted to relatively high mobility of plains equestrian hunters 0 Two layers of skin inner and outer made tipis very warm 0 Sometimes used canvas Tipi furnishings 0 Inner and outer skin 0 Heated stones to keep heat with coals in fireplace 0 Moveable flaps with poles to make sure smoke escaped 0 Buffalo skin bedding Earthlodges o Plains horticulturalists living along the upper Missouri River 0 Adapted to sedentary lifestyle 0 More permanent 0 Large enough to fit a lineage 0 Central area used for cooking and congregating o Perimeter for sleeping and storage GrassThatched Houses 0 Horticulturalists of southern Plains 0 Very substantial 0 Framework of poles bend some of them to create dome shape 0 Tie grass to the exterior Settlement Patterns Equestrian Hunters 0 Whole tribal groups aggregated during the summer 0 During other times of year they re divided into bands and smaller segments 0 Some divisions by bands and tribes 0 Pattern of fusion and fission adjusted to dispersal and aggregation of bison Horticulturalists o Sedentary except for several summer weeks when they would hunt bison o Palisaded villages fenced in for protection from hostile groups can also be offensive because men can raid other groups and leave few warriors at home Subsistence Bisonmajor food source of all Plains groups Source of raw materials for food and shelter Horticulturalists farmed corn beans and squash Also important food source to Horticulturalists Burning was done to manage plant resources was common throughout arid regions of western North America 0 Increased productivity of seeds important foods Food Storage 0 Horticulturalists stored food in underground cists located within or near their houses I Agricultural products were dried prior to storage I Bell shaped I Food stored under ashes refuse earth grass and a circular skin cover in between Cooking 0 Equestrians used skin containers 0 Horticulturalists used pottery 0 Pottery containers decorated with incised and impressed designs could cook right over fires Clothing and Adornment Men wore little during summer legging and cloaks of leather during the winter Shieldsimportant o Warrior society warfare prevalent People wore moccasins Women wore leather dresses Cloth used postcontact Plains people known for bead art Social Organization Equestrians O O O Egalitarian status depended on age and skill Not much lineageclan organization emphasis on associations with kin within one s own age group Men s societies often composed on men of same ages Some were warrior societies men who fought together and served as police during summer tribal gatherings and communal bison hunting Residential groups 34 levels of organization 1 Nuclear or extended family based on matrilocality patrilocality or ambilocality normally occupants of a tipi 2 Bilateral group of such kin clusters sometimes called a kindred which traveled and pitched their tipis together aunts uncles basically extended family 3 Band consisting of several kindredlike groups 100550 people each 4 Whole tribe generally consisting of 1020 bands Each band had a leader All band leader of a tribe formed tribal council Tribe chiefs depended on council members and did not have much authority separate from council Leadership based on skill as warrior leader Horticulturalists O O 0 Religion Egalitarian status differences based on age and skill Lineageclan organization with named clans Northerly groups matrilineal central groups were patrilineal basically the Plains were mixed Some tribes had warrior societies like equestrians some societies were agegrades identify with that group as you grew older Lineageclan organization became unimportant while away from villages during summer bison hunt Villages within a tribe were politically and economically autonomous Village chiefs did not have significant authority The Sun Dance 0 O 0 Annual event held during a summer tribal gathering Rite of passage to show strength and pain tolerance Pierce men s nipple areas almost suspended from poles painfully pulling on them dancing until skewers pulled from the flesh still practiced today Most Plains groups practiced this o Included singing dancing and praying o Prominent feature was selfinflicted pain by young adult males 0 Become men after doing the Sun Dance Sweating o A means of purification prior to major ceremonies ie Sun Dance 0 Sometimes done for medicinal purposes 0 Done is special sweat lodges 0 Bring in rocks heated in a hearth The quotIndian Wars and Reservations Number of Indian Reservations established after the Civil War Highly marginal areas 0 Not rich land where you could farm or gather crops 0 Can t raise many bison if you re restricted to one area The Lakota signed treaties at Fort Laramie Stationary life on government subsidies Lakota leader who didn t sign the treaty Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull Tensions increased between US and Lakota George Custer discovered gold in the Black Hills when looking for a spot to build a fort 0 Lots of gold miners came to Black Hills Against the Lakota treaty invasion of land US tried to buy the Black Hills back put price offered was rejected by all Lakota Government told all Lakota to report to one area 1876 no one reported US sent a lot of troops to the area Lakota having annual Sun Dance while soldiers approached Wiped out George Custer s troop Cheyenne Arapaho and Lakota organized the ambush Battle of Little Bighorn 00000000 The Battle of Wounded Knee 1890 Last big battle between Plains peoples and EuroAmerican expansion Related to adoption of the GhostDance religion among Plains groups Wovoka founder of second version of GhostDance religion Troops went into Lakota camp in the dead of night to quotdisarmquot all the troops A native fighter refused to give up his gun Things escalated someone shot a gun cavalry began firing indiscriminately A few escaped cavalry chased them down and shot them More of a killing than a battle most Plains people were unarmed the entire time Atrocious event in American history Only 25 US cavalry died US was still trying to get Lakota to sign off their lands Failed to feed clothe and house Plains people Ghost Dance Vision of Christ returning to earth as a Native American White would disappear buffalo would appear again everything would be nice Alcoholism became a major problem 0 Some were paid in alcohol for labor 0 Less resistance to alcohol than whites more liable to addiction We have 3rel world reservations in the US People restricted to terrible land Wounded Knee Occupation Some Native Americans went and occupied the Wounded Knee site Lived on limited resources Were wellarmed 0 Some shots were fired 0 An FBI agent was killed Occupation of Alcatraz Claimed it as their own land in the 1970s Lots of activism in the 1970s Raised awareness of Native American treatment in the 20th century Modern Conditions Some of the poorest reservations in the US are in the Great Plains Some reservations have casinos other liable casino areas Tradition of summer gatherings has continued sometimes as multitribe gatherings Characteristics of Plains Culture Area 2 basic cultural types equestrian hunters and horticulturists Bison was important food source for everyone Horse was fundamental to a dependence on bison Social organization was either generational equestrian or lineageclan horticulturalist Dwellings reflected contrast between mobility equestrian and staying put horticulturalist Sun Dance was a dominant religious institution Plains Indian culture as documented ethnographically existed only in the 19th century Northeast Culture Area Iroquois Confederacy Mohawk Oneida Onondaga Cayuga Seneca and Tuscarora Lands bordering each other in modern day New York Formed land to stop fighting among the Iroquois people Imperialist expansionist group Successful because they grew corn beans and squash Lots of war against Algonquins o Eventually Algonquins developed agriculture were able to hold their own Chippewa of Ojibwa 1845 Boy Chief traveled to Paris with 11 Ojibwe who had their portraits painted and danced for King Louis Philippe Dwellings of Northern Groups Conical dwellings covered in birch bark 0 Almost tipis but different 0 Not skin covered More common are dome shaped birch bark dwellings Dwellings of Western Great Lakes and Northern Margin Covered with reed mats Conical and dome shaped Settlements of Western GL and Northern Margin Subsistence both huntinggathering and horticulture Most dwellings easy to build winter dwellings more substantial Winter dwellings clustered together palisaded located farther to the south Groups made of 3 or more family nomadically moving throughout year in search of food Dwellings Longhouses Iroquois and neighbors Longhouses sapling framing covered in bark Iroquoian longhouses accommodated lineages sometimes large ones Ranged in size between 40 and 400 feet long and 20 to 30 feet wide Partitioned into compartments for one or two nuclear families Hearths in each compartment with cubicles for beds 0 Most activity happened around the hearths Palisades became more intense right before contact Subsistence and Settlement Patterns Northwestern Extreme of the Culture Area Wild rice gathering important in past and present 0 Sliced off rice storing in canoe 0 Process get rice out of it back at the settlement Iroquois and Neighbors Villages often palisaded against raids Agriculture basic subsistence corn beans and squash Hunting and gathering also part of subsistence Cooking Pottery containers used among horticulturalists Northernmost groups didn t use pottery Pottery decorated with incised lines Transportation Canoes important means of transportation traversing lakes Canoes had wood frame and covered with strips of birch bark sewn together Made trade easier faster to travel by boat than by land SocioPolitical Organization Western Great Lakes and Northern Margin Some groups had patrilineal clans and were patrilocal o Moieties also existed Others had extended families with patrilocal residence upon marriage but no clans A nuclear family or an extended family was the basic social unit which was autonomous during much of the year Summer aggregations could include up to a few hundred people Southern areas some village occupied year round agriculture more important Village or band chiefs sometimes came from particular clans or other social units In general social and political organization is not well known in part because of economic changes during the historic period SocioPolitical Iroquois and Neighbors Matrilineal lineageclans Man moved to wife s household on marriage Villages composed of several clans each composed of one or more lineages Longhouses occupied by lineages Each village had a civil and war chief Both civil and war chiefs were men associated with particular lineages ie they were hereditary A village civil chief had a group of advisors or was head of a council composed of representative from each clan segment Village civil chiefs were members of a confederacy council League of the Iroquois Grand council of the Iroquois League assembly of 56 Hoyenah chiefs or sachems Seats on council distributed today among Six Nations
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