Chapter 11&12 Motivational Theories
Chapter 11&12 Motivational Theories EDP 301
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Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer Motivational Theories Chapters 11 and 12 Learning Goals De ne motivation and compare the behavioral humanistic cognitive and social perspectives on motivation Discuss the important processes in motivation to achieve Examine theories of motivation within a classroom setting Discuss the roles and responsibilities of the teacher in motivational characteristics Look at various types of students by motivation type and methods for working with them Recommend how to help students with achievement problems Motivation De nition inspiration intemalextemal drive to do something desire reasons for behavior VOLUNTARY Model of motivation 0 Need a Drive a Goal NEED recognizing a needde cit physiologicalpsychological DRIVE change in behavior do something different GOAL target you satis ed the need don t always reach the goal 0 Need is de cit drive is change in behavior goal is target 0 Need may be physiological or psychological Behaviorism not classical because its involuntary Operant conditioning 0 Use reinforcers to motivate 0 Positive amp negative reinforcement 0 May also behave in ways to avoid punishment Dangers of rewards Are rewards necessary Yes and no in younger children it seems more effective intrinsic internal rewards don t want to be punished reward for yourself Is there a reward for everything Altruism What are some cautions for their use Don t want the reward to swamp the behavior What alternatives are available One reward that is more intrinsic is praise Praise is external but it can be internalized after repetition Learned helplessness De nition decrease in motivation due to lack of opportunity for avoidance of punishment cant avoid punishment so you re not motivated to do anything Lack of escape or avoidance opportunities lead to learned helplessness stop trying because can t avoid punishment ex Abuse situations undergo it so long that they don t see opportunity to escape anymore don t know why they are being punished Burross H 2015 Feb 27 Chapter 11 amp 12 Motivational Theories University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer Ex studying really hard for a test and you do horribly study really hard for second test and still fail the third test you don t try at all Similar to selfhandicapping but learned helplessness is more often the result of environmental problems selfhandicapping is more internal selfimposed learned helplessness is about external punished by their environment selfhandicapping is self imposed they know they are going to fail Extrinsic vs intrinsic Primary reason for behavior 0 Intrinsic do it for self you want to and you bene t from it Ex Showering to keep yourself clean you would do it otherwise even if no one notices o Extrinsic do it because of others not necessarily for others Ex Feeding the dog because they re hungry if they weren t there you wouldn t be doing it Examples Reading a book to relax intrinsic Reading a book because its assigned extrinsic Wear a hat to protect yourself from the sun intrinsic Take a nap because you re bored intrinsic Pet the cat because he keeps bothering you extrinsic Clean you kitchen because it s driving you crazy intrinsic Benefits of intrinsic the more intrinsic we are the better off we tend to be Behavior that is internalized intrinsic has more transfer across situations and longevity ex Like to read more likely to read for class keep up with current events A person who relies solely on external reinforcement tends to be unmotivated without the promise of reinforcement Praise is an effective means of reward because it is easily internalized 0 Positive is reinforcing and motivating praise itself is an extrinsic but it can be internalized selftalk Intrinsic motivation What are some methods for boosting internalization of motives Seeing results from behavior external factors boost internal motives feedback being re ective on the benefits when we can t nd an extrinsic reason for a task we look intrinsically Ex being paid 5 vs 100 for circling vowels in an encyclopedia 100 people look at the extrinsic money as the reward 5 people look intrinsically and see the experiment as more positive than the 100 people Burross H 2015 Feb 27 Chapter 11 amp 12 Motivational Theories University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer Maslow s hierarchy of needs VOLUNTARY BEHAVIORS have a choice Self actualization fulfilling your destiny as a human being when in you recognize or fulfill your purpose for being here getting your F93 diploma Z 1 Aesthetic needs reorganizing to make it more appealing need to e hear a particular piece of musicsee artwork religion G Co nitive needs need to know what happens at the end of a book entertainment for learning value figuring out what she meant II when she said this Esteem needs need for recognitionapproval need for praise to win a contest entertainment because of boredom l 39ency needs Belongingness amp Love Needs need to call momhome need to see your best friend taking care of your dog religion Safety needs shelter abuse situation using a helmet wearing a seatbelt cleanliness Physiological needs food water sleep shelter using bathroom Humanistic theory based on the theory that you can t judge can t understand everyone s experience everyone is doing the best they can under Maslow s theory everything we do voluntary can be classi ed as one of these concepts original 156 levels the time spent on each need can be seen as the width of each level to be a healthy human being you have to ful ll these levels these apply to individuals and societies ex buildings most have a bathroom amp food places From more basic needs bottom to more complex top Must satisfy lower needs before you can address higher needs more motivated to ful ll lower needs than you are to ful ll higher needs Selfactualization is very rare most people have very few moments in their lives where they are in a selfactualized state transcendence goes beyond selfactualization seeing your life ash before your eyes A student who is in a de cit state of a lower need physiological safety cannot function at a higher level leamin o i and attempt to meet these needs with freereduced meals and by making the school a safe place doesn t matter how the schools measure success free and reduced lunches improved attentiveness attendance etc However even people in extreme de cit situations abuse Holocaust concentration camps have created beautiful works of art 0 More an issue of than motivation not having a choice but making decisions in other areas that they did have a choice cant have food but can learn make art etc Burross H 2015 Feb 27 Chapter 11 amp 12 Motivational Theories University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer 0 You meet a person for the rst time After you met the person is your comment more likely to be Gee o Tex brushes his teech because he I Wants them to stay healthy and clean safety I Is competining in a dental hygiene contest I Wants to impress ihis next door neighbors I Worries about his bad breath belongingness I Has a medical condition physiological Arousal theories Types of motives Primary necessary for basic survival bottom 2 theories of Maslow s theory Ex Deserted on an island these would be what you need to survive food sleep water shelter etc Secondary learned motives not necessary for basic survival learned in culture communication religion money exchange Stimulation some classify this as a part of the secondary motives reasons for behavior that don t meet survival needs and don t need to be learned YerkesDodson Law Relationship between performance and how aroused stimulated stressed you are Strong Pe rtorm a nce We a k Optimal arousal kquot Optimal performance Impaired performance because of strong anxiety Increasing attention and interest L ow Arousal http en wikipedia orgwikiF ileHebbianYerkesDodsonJPG Best performancemotivation usually at moderate arousal moderate level is individual some need a lot of push ex procrastinators they need a higher level of arousal to be motivated 0 Under stimulated and over stimulated not motivating Activation of self has ideal levels that we try to maintain some people have higher some lower Depends on type of arousal too being pushedchallenged cognitively motocross racing vs watching an exciting TV show everyone has different highs for stimulation Burross H 2015 Feb 27 Chapter 11 amp 12 Motivational Theories University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer Social learning theory A sociocultural theory relies on social interaction culture to mediate motivation Observation and modeling Bandura Motivation stems from desire to get an expected desired outcome like that received by a model learning theory 9 motivation context motivation comes from outcome 1 want what they have avoid what happened to them so I m going to do or not do what they did Vicarious reinforcementpunishment possible assumed no necessarily observed reinforcementpunishment DON T WORRY ABOUT THIS BULLET POINT More motivated to engage in activities for which we have high selfef cacy belief in yourself if you can do something your abilities related to a task your perception about your own abilities not exactly reality 0 Those that we believe we can be successful doing the higher our selfef cacy the more motivated we are to do it but there is more to it than that See next theory Value and expectation A cognitive theory combination of theorists Motivation is the product of the amount of value and expectation one has 0 Value something important to you or what it s worth to you 0 Expectation beliefs about your ability and success Bandura s selfef cacy depends on your own individual beliefs and perceptions Value x expectation motivation 0 High selfef cacy but no motivation it doesn t mean anything to you no value ex Riding tricycles after class if you want no extra credit or outside motivation 0 High value more motivation high expectation Ex turning in paper early to get 100 bonus points 0 If you are good at something but it doesn t have any value to you you wont be as motivated to do it o If either value or expectation is zero motivation is zero Value and selfefficacyexpectations Many times students cannot see the inherent or longterm value of learning why should I care Students who expect no success learned helplessness selfhandicapping can be dif cult in terms of motivation Methods for increasing value help them recognize value by increasing their knowledge base leading by example being passionate and enthusiastic asking students who is important to them and applying the knowledge to those examples putting knowledge in context for students demonstrating concepts applying the knowledge to all students based on their interests have them invest in the process give them clarity Ex History doesn t matter to me it happened 200 years ago 9 who is important to you My mom who is a lawyer well she would appreciate past cases to apply those cases to future and present cases Methods for increasing selfef cacy Burross H 2015 Feb 27 Chapter 11 amp 12 Motivational Theories University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer Cognitive dissonance When what we know or believe and what we are learning or doing do not coincide Belief structure and something that violates those beliefs equilibrium a behavior is hypocritical to your beliefs saying one thing but doing another Like two inharmonic notes being played at the same time This makes us uncomfortable the uncomfortableness is the motivation so we actively try to reduce dissonance by 0 Changing beliefs to t behavior 0 Changing behavior to t beliefs 0 Compartmentalizing the two keep separate we are good at doing both but we don t actively try to line up the two we isolate them mentally o Merging the two compromising Weiner s locus of control or attributions To what do we attribute our successes and failures very cognitive approach to past experiences you think why you were successful or why you failed Three components that affect motivation in the way we face tasks 0 Locus location within the self or external to the self something you brought to the task or an outside factor Internal perseverance you knew what you were doing External the test was hardeasy 0 Stability is the reason for success failure going to be there the next time you succeedfail Stable good at test taking unstable friends helped you along 0 Control anyone can control them Uncontrollable illness internal accident unstable external Controllable studying for a test internal teacher likes you so you do well on the test external stable Attributions come about from past experiences feedback from others the way you reason these past experiences affect how we are motivated in the future feedback from others will affect us in our motivation as well ex if someone thinks you did well on a test you didn t believe you did well on you will be motivated to do the same or better next time Weiner in Practice For each of the following identify where the individual is in Wiener s theory 0 Seth believes he did well on a test because he was lucky internal unstable uncontrollable 0 Steve believes he did poorly on a test because he is stupid internal stable you have consistent thoughts about that uncontrollable 0 Sally believes she did poorly on a test because she didn t study enough for a test internal controllable unstable 0 Sandra believes she did well on a test because the teacher likes her external controllable by the teacher stable for that class Attributions Accurate attributions are not always the most motivating being honest with yourself is not always motivating we are bad at least one thing Burross H 2015 Feb 27 Chapter 11 amp 12 Motivational Theories University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer 0 Why not Recognizing a failure is not very motivating to do that task in the future 0 The between helping students with the realistic reasons for their performance and increasing future motivations can be delicate could view it as an unstable failure and want to persevere being optimistic 0 While not ignoring reality emphasize what can be done to increase future success what can be done to be more successful what other steps can be taken What else can teachers do Keep trying encourage change the reason a student think they failed give them tools to try other ways be realistic about your role in student failures re ectiveness make small goals that lead to the big goal monitoring and adjusting to students needs Trait theory Goal orientation order More social cognitive look at overall patterns and characteristics of motivation based on own thought processes and the social aspects Some people have general traits or trends in their motivations it can change there can be a change over time developmentally but there is a general pattern of motivation present over time Another model additive o The n are the symbols used in the model just for your reference Motivation needs for achievement and affiliation n n n Achievement and af liation needs McClelland 0 Some people are more motivated by a need to achieve their personal goals nAch sense of accomplishing something 0 Others show a basic pattern of need to be affiliated with others nAff need to be recognized by others associated with others belongingness o McClelland did include other basic motivations but these are the most commonly used Which is healthiest Achievement depends on the goals you want to achieve Affiliation could also be correct depending on who the people are How does knowing this help teachers Seeing what motivates students less healthy 9 more healthy motivations Type of Goal Example 1 Helpless goal orientation Focusing on how little time they have to complete the task limitations what s going to stop us from accomplishing tasks 2 Performanceavoidance goal Avoiding speaking for a group so they won t look dumb don t orientation want to feel less than so you avoid task 3 Workavoidance goal Completing an assignment with as little effort as possible student orientation meets minimum standards 4 Social goal orientation Wanting the teacher to view them as responsible approach task because you want others to see how well you perform 5 Performanceapproach goal Producing the best essay in the class when you want to do the task orientation to be better than everyone else want to be on top 6 Mastery goal orientation Understanding the difference between wellwritten and poorly written essays you do it because you want to understand and master the task Burross H 2015 Feb 27 Chapter 11 amp 12 Motivational Theories University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer l Performanceavoidance 2 Mastery goal orientation rst social goals last part 3 helpless goal orientation 4 performanceapproach 5 social goal 6 workavoidance Optimal experiences and flow httpwwwthehappymanagercomself motivationhtml Optimal experiences amp flow looks at motivation in two continuums challenge and skill individual perception of your abilities in terms of challenge and skill Optimizing ow What are the challenges in promoting ow Students perception of their own abilities they can be wrong about your skills are smarter than they think they are have to get them to believe they are more skilled breakdown challenges and it will be done How can we promote ow High skill high challenge making students believe they can do it Selfregulation Selfregulated learners have 0 O O O 0 Time management skills Goal setting focus Monitoring goals Metacognitive knowledge Strategy use memory and learning strategies tool kit of strategies Climate variables include 0 O O 0 Order and safety order doesn t have to be a set routine every time safety in ability to explore their options Emphasis on success Appropriate challenge matches their ability Task comprehension helping learner understand what they re doing Teachers can 0 Examine their own personal teaching Burross H 2015 Feb 27 Chapter 11 amp 12 Motivational Theories University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer O O 0 Model selfregulation letting students know your goals showing how as a class you are getting to that goal Show enthusiasm for learning to avoid boredom Be caring care about them as students and as people Maintain positive expectations teaching them to get back up Instructional variables are 0 O O 0 Focus and organization focus on the learning Personalizationrelevance keeping instruction personalizedrelevant Involvement have them invest in the process Constructive feedback know how to grow and develop Social relationships not theory based Motivation to achieve 0 Parents should provide the right amount of challenge in a positive environment and model achievement behavior parents that are high achievers tend to have kids who are high achievers Peers with high achievement standards will support student achievement in others Teachers optimize achievement when they provide challenging tasks in a supportive environment Family variables 0 0 Culture cultural values affect the way we are motivated Traditions ex Take over the family business instead of going to college you might not explore other options after school Parenting styles authoritarian bimodal distribution comply or rebel Family makeup raised by single parent step parent grandparent other member Birth order affects motivation by following older child or completely go in a different path SES Social Economic Status access to resources huge predictor of motivation and standardized test scores high poverty want to break away from their mold Ethnicity low association between ethnicity and motivation NOT a predictor of motivation How teachers can help Personally Believing in your capability to get all students to learn believe in yourself Maintaining appropriately high expectations for all students keeping head high when those expectations are not met Modeling responsibility effort and interest in the topics you re teaching enthusiasm Demonstrating caring and commitment to your students learning by spending time outside of class with them To keep attention and motivation when teachin Begin with Burross H 2015 Feb 27 Chapter 11 amp 12 Motivational Theories University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer Use a variety of high quality that it reaches the student not the typical example Develop lessons with Provide practice before students work on their own not becoming dependent of the teacher Make an integral part of the teaching learning process and provide detailed feedback testing is important assessment of not only material but what you may need to revisit in terms of material Climate and instructional variables Establish rules and procedures that maintain a safe orderly learning environment Create links between topics to students personal lives relevance provides interest Describe the reasons for studying particular topics and provide evidence for increasing competence why it is important to know Establish and maintain high levels of student involvement in learning activities questioning Provide speci c and detailed feedback on student work Motivation and gender Males Females Have higher competence beliefs in math and sports tend to rate themselves higher in math and sports high selfefficacy Are more rambunctious tend to get more teacher attention and needing more special needs services affects motivation by how they re perceived Receive more teacher attention yet receive lower grades List more career options what they could do and what they plan to do Have higher competence beliefs for language arts and social activities selfgrading not actual ability make more friends Often experience con icts between gender roles and achievement females typically plan for time off when having children more con icts in the lifespan family Are more compliant get less teacher attention go along with the ow if you get a bad mark you go with it less likely to argue about the grade than males By middle school have lower selfesteem one classroom to big school with several classrooms different schedule developmental changes peerpressure 9 selfesteem drops and recovers a little bit but never goes back fully highest is around age 6 or 7 males do recover almost fully Specific motivation issues Low achievers with low expectations doesn t think its going to get better have to set up subgoals small achievements until a big one can be achieved High anxiety allow for safety in taskmanagement what s the worst that can happen experiencing failure but getting back up Protection of selfworth by avoiding failure failure to do it less harmful and failure to succeed pretty tough are different things selfworth is not based on this one incident Burross H 2015 Feb 27 Chapter 11 amp 12 Motivational Theories University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer Procrastinators can be a result of these other issues have them set up deadlines to get parts done along the way work on parts piece by piece Perfectionists result of procrastination dwell on the details so much that they may miss the deadline get them to decrease selfcriticism Hard to reach low achievers not coming to class or they are there but not involved not engaged in the class include social aspect to be accountable for make sure there aren t outside factors diagnosis family issues etc Considering theories of motivation Contributions Aspect of learning and What affects it Have multiple theories that may relate to something better Criticisms Changing our approaches to learning is dif cult Burross H 2015 Feb 27 Chapter 11 amp 12 Motivational Theories University of Arizona Tucson AZ