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Ancient Greece

by: Teresa Cardona

Ancient Greece HON 187

Teresa Cardona
University of Hartford
GPA 3.76

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Study notes on the periods of Ancient Greece, along with red figure painting and Black figure painting. The ranged from painting styles to sculptures and the techniques developed. Talks about the L...
History of Western Art I
Class Notes
Greek, Culture, western, Art, history, red, figure, painting, Black, sculpture, kuros, Latin, Egyptian Art, Roman
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This 48 page Class Notes was uploaded by Teresa Cardona on Monday April 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HON 187 at University of Hartford taught by Onuf in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see History of Western Art I in Art History at University of Hartford.

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Date Created: 04/25/16
• Mountainous • Can’t farm • CANT MAKE BREAD – Wheat>>>> TRADING • Ruled by Kings – Tyrants • Fought over territories – land • Yet have a common language and culture • Outside attack from Persians (east) >>>> unified politics and unified language – Power to the people (only males – landing owning citizens • Olympics – shows STRENGTHS and triumphs>>>> fame • OLYMPUS (Religion) – god and goddesses – (Demi – gods & Titans & • PHYSICAL PLACE – not the sky • PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS – human characteristics – lack of human emotions – illogical – JUST POWERFUL • PHILOSOPHY – Socrates Plato Aristotle >>>> reaching an ideal (****Shift in focus to better on themselves) MAN IS THE MEASURE TO ALL THINGS! - PROTAGEROUS 1 • ART STYLES ARE RAPIDLY CHANGING!!!! 1 2 Found outside of Athens in a cemetery – marker for the grave GEOMETRIC PERIOD – Art >>>> Practical >>>> all pottery had a specific purpose >>>> everyday use >>>>everyday people Potter and painter are the same person Geometric shapes – funerary procession and rituals for the dead. Grief – mourning – the here and now >>>> What happens after they have gone. Continual honoring – how we respond – Cremation >>> don’t need your body STYLE: Geometric shapes - Triangles/half circles/ rectangular shapes/ squares/ lines/ NOT fully formed bodied No depth – flat – sense of abstract quality – not realistic – scenes separated by bands of decorate strips –so many patterns – figures are a pattern – very few organic shapes – Representational – deliberately abstract – this satisfied them at the moment. They could make them realistic if they wanted to... 3 SOME STANDARD SHAPES OF GREEK VESSELS [Fig. 05-22] 4 ACTUALLY HAS AN ARTIST NOW! The potter and the painter – Selling it? Pride? Achievements? Lots of artists >>> COMPETITION IN THE ART FIELD No longer just abstract – less patterns – realistic – tells a story – contrast – simpler – BLACK FIGURE PAINTING >>> Flat black areas that emphasizes the area of color The shape – Achilles and Ajax - warriors who fought in the Trojan War – Hellen of Troy the most gorgeous woman in the world (Married) Greeks stole the women The Trojans were furious – Achilles dies (His ankles) and Ajax commits suicide Greeks know that shit is going to go down Scale Achillles is winning>>> taller – more dominant Achilles is on the edge of his seat – His spears are relaxed – heels on the ground Ajax is losing – helmet is off>>> losing??? Tense Muscles are flexed – clenching his spear – emphasizes line on the spears (Aligned almost perfefctly) – heel Is on tiptoes – getting close to the board. MENTAL / STRATEGY GAME/ PSYCHOLOGICAL FOCUS THE PATTERN AT THE TOP FOCUSES ON THEIR FACES >>>> FACIAL EXPRESSIONS>>>> CONCENTRATION HANDLES FOCUS DOWN INTO THE PICTURE THROUGH THE SPEARS INTO THE CENTER SCENE. Thin line between the floor and the figures Organic shapes – not a tremendous level of naturalism – conveys figures in space and interacting with each other. Scrap away to create a pattern in their capes and beards>>>> NEW TECHNIQUE 5 Master of vessel decorations 5 6 7 8 9 RED FIGURE PAINTING – REVERSED Figured are not painted in – fine application of black glaze to create negativity vs positive space. Easier to add then to subtract the color >>> more detail >>> can have small and large areas of black – scale of colors (thin layer of black) Little more flexible and easier to shade with 10 Moved from small sculptures – face painting to this huge life sized sculpture What is this guy? Kuros >>>> “Youthful man” This was used to represent athletes or heros – typically with no clothes on Marking graves. – brightly painted – thought that it was pure to be solidly white therefore the paint was scrapped off. Pharoah >>>> idealist Kuros>>>> more believable – his knees fall over the knee caps – his ‘v’ lines on his hips – the patterns in the hair. Still have a sort of geormetric and repetitive patterns >>>> hair is portrayed as straight strands rather than slowing strands. 11 A lot more negative space – Free standing No physical support – thought out – Deliberate – Engineering challenges Truly in the round – his “cute little butt” and his hair is even sculpted. Walking towards you – unlike pharaoh being held back Walking off the slab – potential freedom – Have energy – limberness Pharoah >>> idealistic Kuros >>> More realistic – knees bending over the knee cap – the way tendons stretch – the ‘V’ lines More naturalististic 12 “Young women” maiden – attendants to the gods – priestesses? Or even gods themselves? Faces is much more expressive – more focus to the gaze – Clearly expressive – has a Dimple (Archaic Smile) (Archaic Smile)>>> ideally in good health- being content – good well being – confidence – independence – attempt to show feelings and human nature? Shows an inner life – COMPLETELY NEW IDEA TO PORTRAY stands independently – missing an arm (extended outward to hold a cloth (peplos cloth) used ritually shows a function – extend this figure beyond the strict rigid stance we normally see – calls to interact with the public Sinches at waist – cloak – rope responds to the drapery – breasts were rounded – drapery over the arms - 13 After 200 years…… Greater attention to muscles – sees the collar bone – ‘v’ lines are refined and softer (skin like) – muscles under the skin are seen as it would in life Torse is not strict - he is pivoting – its not straight – angled – not just looking directly forward and the knees aren’t equal Arms attached to body to protect the sculpture and secure them His eyes are gouged into – Prostetic eyes? Stones? Painted? Not a general face – not abstract – has a specific look to it – looks like a normal person UNDERSTANDS THE ANATOMY– sees where the bones are along with the muscles are under the skin – ORGANIC MORE OBSERVATIONAL – MORE IDEALS TO SEE YOUTHFUL FORMS 14 Geometric to Archaic to CLASSICAL PERIOD – the movement in the structure – not strict or rigid form anymore Contrapposto – Against Structure – counter balancing arrangement of the body The figure is older – more masculine – slender to more mature and build man >>> incredibly strong and grounded (broze spear in his hand) Slender is to runner and built is to fighter GREEKS COME TOGETHER – VICTORY OVER THE TORJANS – UNITY 15 GREEKS COME TOGETHER – VICTORY OVER THE TORJANS – UNITY This is a Casting and replica of the Polykleitos - CRETUS ON ART AND A CANON OF PROPORTION seen as a model for other artists – interacting with the world (gravity) – length of the head is a measurement – relational proportions – the body is based off the body Observed from nature – Observed everyone – measured – used the world to reveal the larger ideals Difficult to balance – did the original in bronze (lost) Can be reused and melted down – so he recreated it in marble 16 The sea overserved the sculpture – shows the ideals Roughly the same contrapposto stance – balanced – has movement – his eyes – the proportion LOST WAX TECHINQUE – wax then ceramic exterior …. Melt wax then you have a ceramic replica – por in molten bronze – let it harden – done in sections Lot more detail – easier to recreate Bronze>>>> Lighter>>> easier to manipulate>>>> Hallow>>> easier to balance>>> difference positions>>>> no more arm supports >>> completely freestanding 17 No longer centrally balanced >>> Extended>>>> more actions more movement >>>> interact with each other – Us- the world Broken 4 wall! toes lifted and heel pressed down – about to roll onto his toes - in mid action THE GOD IS REALISTIC (ideal form of man) 18 ACROPOLIS – “high city”in Athens ***** 480 B.C. – victory over the Persians!!!! ***** Dedicated to the patron ‘Athena the Virgin’ – built in 9 years ‘Parthenos’ – built over the foundations of the old temple FUNCTION: Houses Athena Monument to represent the victory over Persians Tells story of Poseidon vs Athena battle Historical and mythological significance Treasury COLLABORATION – two diff architects (island and main land>>> two diff styles of art= Greece was finally unitied) SUPERVISED – by Pheidias (priorities >>> Lavishness and beauty were the upmost priority) Provided the design to the temple Patron Goddess of Athens (Seen from anywhere in the city – highest point) becomes a landmark – sacred spot to Athena Battle between her and posiden – Athena won! Offered an Oil Tree rather than Posideons Sea Water>>>> named after her! They had to proved themselves rather than the people to just worship her. 19 Treasury – housed valuables LONG ASS WALK!!!! – hard to get up to the Parthenon. 19 20 HELLA BUSY! – Multiple buildings 21 Birds eye view Not private – public – small porches – two rooms Cella >>> Cello “living room” >>> main room LOTS OF COLUMNS! – being a substitute for walls Columns make It more open 22 15 ft tall Solid gold and ivory CENTER PIECE of the entire sculpture Athena would reside and live in the temple The spear and shield and armor>>>> War and wisdom Virgin Warrior>>> Persian War – sign of Athenian power Nike in right hand>>> Victory HUGE! CROWN! GRANDE!!!! Gaze is above and beyond us. Over view of the entire city. CONTRAPOSTO!!! – balanced posture - Dignitfied – femine – power – refinement 23 DORIC – refers to dorian people – stylistic principles – how it fits together/proportians >>> DORIC TEMPLE 24 Elements are still there 25 Basilica A050c Proportions are more refined Started bigger at the bottom Hera – linear Athena – cones – cleaner – uniform – less exaggerated (roof looks extremely heavy on HERA) – less obvious FLUTING (the lines and groves in the columns accentuates Columns are like humans – small(feet) larger in center(body) and small at top (head) - more noticeable in HERA 26 (4:9) ratio or (x: 2x+1) ratio 8 columns in front 17 columns on sides COLUMNS ARE SLANTED INWARD at the top into the center of the building Leans – more stable Theories – human vision makes it look like its leaning if it was not leaning forced perspective of the building – looks MUCH taller! Emphasis that the walls are so tall they are converging the calculations - more dynamic – Outside looks straight – Inside looks Long and taller the raised up stairs – you can’t see the ground it stands on – you just see the city and the mountains – looks higher than the ground BUILDING - thought about how humans interact with it when building it. COMPLEX!!!! – the audience was important 27 Took canon of proportion and edited it to fit the architecture structure is like a skeleton 27 28 A127 29 RELIEFS – each side had a set that told a story GREEKS&GODS always win in the stories vs the barbarians Greeks have been great and always will win Tribute to their awesomeness Didn’t tell the victory over the Persians (Was so recent – it was over kill) Stands in for the victory – like a metaphor Centaurs vs Lapiths (tribe of Greeks) Lapiths celebrate a wedding and centaurs get drunk >>> Take the women and rape them>>> Lapiths are mad and causes a battle Condensed – human is bigger and in front of centaur >>> mid battle Composition Is dynamic with rounded poses 30 32 metopes - 4x4 squares - How do you keep the story interesting??? Only one human and one centaur in the battle Rock in humans hand?????? - suspense Back and forth – change understanding of narrative How the scenes unfold. 31 THEROY! -The reliefs were so detailed – to be seen from far away Painting made is easier to see? 32 33 Ceremony that Athena is honored with every 4 years (a new dress) Procession Left to right Movement increases – horse legs 34 Figures facing each other - maidens 35 Triangular area – Would have been wood Reliefs sculpted in the round – again another story 36 Athena vs Poseidon Birth of Athena -Zeus has a headache – Head explodes out comes athena 37 IN THE ROUND – Significance : shows the gods MORE IMPORTANT Required this degree of detail No half assing it Brings to perfection represents the gods! Respond to the space – in the corners laid down – change the poses Egyptians would change the proportions 38 *slides dimmed* 39 40 Continue off the edge of the pediment 41 7 of the 32 42 43 44


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