Week 7: Persuasion
Week 7: Persuasion JMC:1100:0AAA
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie Kreischer on Saturday March 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JMC:1100:0AAA at University of Iowa taught by Patrick Wright in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Media Uses and Effects in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 03/07/15
Lecture 12 Persuasion Media Today Honey bee fund 0 Needed 70k got 35 million Snapchat crushes TV 0 Snowpocalypse 25 million viewers 0 Death of Facebook High use makes us sad Comparing ourselves to the people we see Last Time Targeting influences media coverage and shows Big data drives everything 0 Demographicpsychographic information found every time you click Eliminates new things Programs made for you 0 Higher ratings higher cost of advertising Persuasion The act of using rational andor emotional arguments to convince others to change their attitudes beliefs or behaviors 0 KEY Not in and of itself coercive nor manipulation it doesn39t force people to change 0 Not inherently bad Persuasion tries to alter 1 Attitude 0 General and enduring positive or negative feeling about a person object or issue 0 ex Kim Kardashian NY Yankees Catholic church either love or hate her 2 Beliefs o A description of what an individual assumes to be true or false 0 Sometimes confused with facts 0 Truth and belief can create knowledge 0 ex weed pomjuice 3 Behavior 0 How a person acts in response to a particular situation or stimulus 0 KEY Most important goal 0 ex Pavlov s salivating dogs jumping to your phone when it buzzes conditioned response 3 Behavioral Responses to Persuasion 1 Response Shaping o Persuader attempts to shape the response of an audience by teaching individuals how to behave Persuader is the teacher the audience is a student 0 ex telling older people iPads aren t that hard to learn knowledge of chopsticks makes Chinese food more fun fine wine tastings 2 Response Reinforcing o Currentlyheld conditions are strengthened to be more distant to change 0 Makes people feel more strongly by demonstrating their attitudes toward specific behaviors 0 ex gun behavior antivaccine type of truck 3 Response Changing o Creates new behaviors to replace old ones 0 This is the more difficult kind of persuasion because we are reluctant to change 0 ex type of soda search engines Impact of Persuasion More than 260 billionyear spent on advertising in the US Average person is expose to 0 300400 persuasive messagesday 0 Watches 1000 commercials per week Common Forms of Persuasion Debate Expert opinion 0 ex professionals doctors CEOs etc Newspaper editorials Direct advertisements Ads Known Persuasion Works Superbowl ad 45 million MoviesTV shows become ads 0 Every TV program has 1530 products inserted every half hour Ads are even more effective when you think you re immune Product placement in the Man of Steel 0 Also in the Avengers Less Common Forms of Persuasion Buzz Stealth Marketing 0 World of mouth endorsements 0 23 of all sales now directly influence by wordofmouth Actual Urban Outfitters Tshirts Eat less Misery loves alcohol drink you re cute 77 I Key to Stealth or Buzz Marketing Endorsements are disguised as personal spontaneous encounters with a product s users Relies on opinion leaders or early adaptors New Persuasion Battleground Viral marketing 0 Productbrand popularity is not driven by commercial advertising 0 Marketers scrambling to utilize social media 0 ex more people to use the stairs by making it fun created piano stairs 66 more people chose the piano stairs The fun theory AVolkswagen commercial 0 Being marketed to without being marketed to How We Process Persuasive Messages But we approach persuasive messages with our defenses up Route 1 Central Route to Persuasion Persuasion that occurs when the audience is 0 Interested o Attentive o lntellectually involved This route is especially likely if we know that the message is counter attitudinal goes against our current attitudes ex political advertisements Route 2 Peripheral Route to Persuasion Persuasion that occurs when people are influenced by secondary cues like 0 Attractiveness o SexStatus 0 Humor More likely when we are watching programs that are designed to entertain us Best Super Bowl commercial of all time VW Star Wars kid 0 Triggers memory of childhood gives a great feeling about VW Conclusion Persuasion is everywhere Looks to inspire change Not inherently negative but it can be Lecture 13 Persuasion Last time Intro to persuasion o 3 Things That Persuasion is Meant to Influence Attitude Beliefs Behaviors Types of persuasive messaging o Persuasion is a method that uses only rational argument FALSE Elaboration Likelihood Model 0 Two routes Central Interested in the topic and intellectually involved Carefully scrutinize the message Arguments matter Audience must be able and motivated Defenses up Peripheral Not motivated to think about the topic Little thought about the message Secondary cues matter Barack Obama picture ex with kids crowds adoring fans puppies American flag Defenses down 6 Principles of Persuasion Robert Cialdini o Decades of research on why people comply with requests 0 Scientific methods at work 0 Sold a bestseller book 2 million copies Translated in 27 languages Reciprocity o Obligation to give when you receive 0 ex Giving mints to increase tip 0 ex Netflix one month free Scarcity 0 People want more of the things they can have less of 0 Tell what is unique about the idea and what they lose if they don t get it 0 ex emails like last day and 24 hours only Authority 0 People follow lead of experts 0 Important to signal to others what makes you a credibly knowledgable authority Good to have others tell for you expert introduction Ethical and costless and effective 0 ex Dentists and toothpaste ConsistencyCommitment 0 Looking for and asking for small initial commitments that can be made 0 Small gt bigger commitment 0 Voluntary active and public commitments 0 ex Breast Cancer ribbon Liking o 3 Important factors People who are similar People who compliment us People who cooperate with us 0 ex having TuppenNare parties ConsensusSocial Group 0 Look to the actions and behaviors of others to determine their own 0 ex reviews online Third Person Effect An individual s perception that the media have a stronger impact on others than on the self 0 Persuasive messages 0 The news 0 The entertainment media music TV violence porn Why Does This Occur Selfenhancement o The human tendency to perceive the self in ways that make us look good or at least better than other people Illusion of personal invulnerability 0 Human tendency to be overconfident about the objective chances of experiencing a positive event or avoiding a negative event ex People saying they are great drivers that being on a cell phone is the most dangerous driving habit and that they ave talked on the phone while driving Theory of Planned Behavior 0 Helps to predict and explain whether and how a persuasive message ex anti smoking ad would persuade a media consumer ex smoker to change hisher behavior ex quit smoking Attitudes toward behavior Felt social pressure to act Belief in your own ability to complete a task selfefficiacy gt Lead to intention to act or not gt Behavior WNT Chapter 8 Persuasive Effects of the Media 3 Dimensions of Persuasion Attitude 0 Feel differently about something as a result of being exposed to the message 0 Sign that an attitude has changed other attitudes surrounding that one that39s been changed also seem to be affected Behavior Persistent change How Media Messages Persuade without Even Trying Can exert powerful messages on attitudes and behaviors 0 ex getting a library card because Happy Days The Fonz did 500 increase in library cards around the country 0 Movie The DayAfter depicted aftermath of nuclear war in the US people changed their attitudes on the seriousness of nuclear war and wanted to prevent it 0 Cry Rape showed a rape victim pressing charges against the rapist and resulting in an ugly ordeal that prolonged her suffering rape reports decreased significantly Can be controversial People approach persuasive situations with their defenses up Elaboration Likelihood Model ELM Central route to persuasion highly rational or cognitive route to persuasion especially likely if the message is counterattituinal different from the position they hold themselves more difficult to influence Peripheral route to persuasion less careful scrutiny of the message cues lead people to accept the persuasive proposition with little cognitive thought or scrutiny 0 Advertisers often use creative ways to entertain audiences rather than strong persuasive appeal because it is easier to persuade that way Superbowl ads are accustom to processing as entertainment which is more favorable for advertisers Product Placements in Entertainment Programming Better alternative to paying high advertising rates Appeal as more or less incidental to the plot Information from research difficult to obtain for product placement Landscape model when people watch a movie their primary focus is on comprehending the story what viewers cognitively do with different information in a move brand placements depends on the implications of the information for comprehending the movie o Exolicit memory stored material you consciously try to remember to be able to recall views may not be able to remember product placement if it is not crucial to the story line 0 Implicit memory information stored that we don t purposely try to remember unconscious and unintentional viewers will probably store the brand away and have some recognition of the brand Product placement is effective in increasing recognition and familiarity with a product that may translate into brand preference over the long run The Theory of Media Cultivation Cultivating Attitudes is Attitude Change Theory of media cultivation exposure to media cultivates not persuades an attitude or perception of reality attitude change 0 George Gerbner o Gradual media result 0 World of media presents a view of social reality ex 1 of males hold a job in law enforcement but on TV 12 do People become cultivated to this view 0 Fear of criminal victimization People who watch TV heavily are more likely to believe the world is a more violent place and overestimate their changes of being involved in violence 0 Often used in context of media violence and media stereotypes 2 processes that show evidence of media cultivation o Mainstreaming what happens when people of different groups as exposed to the same media Differences become less apparent o Resonance what happens when a person s reallife environment strongly resembles the environment depicted in the media Impact of media cultivation more likely Critics o Difficult to defy conclusive testing only can use survey method 0 Hard to tell whether the correlation is due to media cultivation lf Cultivation Works How Does it Work Accessibility principle draw upon information that is most accessible to answer a ques on 0 ex who you saw last things you ve heard recently Drench hypothesis media cultivation tends to emphasize the effects of repeated exposure to the same sorts of images over a long period of time 0 Power of critical images stand out are deviant are intense and thus are more important viewing experiences 0 ex The Fonz applying for the library card Dripdripdrip hypothesis effects that emerge after steady longterm exposure Intentional Persuasion in the Media Using Entertainment to Improve Public Health Entertainmenteducation persuasive effort from media to share a meaning or something educational Entertainment Overcoming Resistance Model to persuasion EORM drawing people into the story line in such a way that their natural persuasive defenses would be lowered 0 People who watched a news show on teen pregnancy were compared to those who watched an entertainment show about teen pregnancy entertainment show made people more likely to practice safe sex The Great American Values Test Too many studies are conducted in laboratory settings Exposed people to freedom equality and a world of beauty Views gave 9 times more money to solicitors Key Principles of Media Persuasion Power of the Source Credibility of the source 0 Components of credibility Expertise Trustworthiness Message Features Simplicity and repetition 0 Makes propaganda effective 0 Research shows that campaigns need regular infusions of new life to prevent consumer boredom 0 Higher levels of threat lead to greater persuasion 0 Protection motivation theory the extent that fear appeals convince an audience of the severity of a threat their vulnerability to threat and this ability to respond effectively to threat they will be persuasive the extent that the audience perceives that yielding to the persuasive message will be costly in some way even highfear appeals might not be effective 0 For not responding to persuasive appeal 0 Easy to do to parents 0 People tend to avoid and devalue those that make them feel guilty 0 Works best with interpersonal communication Harder with mass media Humor 0 Tends to attract attention to the message o Creates a more favorable attitude toward the message or product 0 Less critical thinking about the message 0 However people may forget the product Weapons of Influence Reciprocity o If someone does something for you you feel the need to do something in return Commitment and consistency o More persuaded to keep things consistent and be committed to certain things Social proof 0 Look to others for guidance Liking o More susceptible to being influenced by someone we like Authority 0 Respond better to someone we see as an authority figure Scarcity 0 Go after things in high demand Subliminal Persuasion The Magic Key Subliminal persuasion media advertising contained hidden or subliminal appeals that penetrated into the unconscious mind of the consumer o Bypass rational scrutiny Early History Key 1970 Movie flash the words eat popcorn and drink Coke for onethird of a millisecond and sales increased The Presumed Mechanism Revolve around two themes sex and death 0 Freud these themes are repressed in our unconscious Subliminal messages unlock repressed urges and motivate a person to purchase a particular product that the unconscious has linked to those urges Psychoanalytic or Freudian perspective Two Important Questions To what extent are subliminal messages actually present in today s mass media 0 Hard to tell If they are present are the persuasive o Supraliminal clearly audience 0 Illusory placebo effect 0 Study found no effects 0 Evidence lacking A Caveat Research on Subliminal Priming Subliminal priming 0 Very effective 0 Recognize words faster if you ve been primed Third Person Effect Third person effect tendency to think that media influence is stronger for other people than it is for oneself Illusion of personal vulnerability students of persuasion tended to think of themselves as people who would never succumb to the pressures of brainwashing 0 Found it easy to assume that the brainwashing techniques would work on others To maximize resistance to persuasion it is best to have a proper understanding of one s own vulnerability
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