Week 6: Agenda Setting and Marketing/Manipulation
Week 6: Agenda Setting and Marketing/Manipulation JMC:1100:0AAA
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie Kreischer on Saturday March 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JMC:1100:0AAA at University of Iowa taught by Patrick Wright in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see Media Uses and Effects in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 03/07/15
Reading Agenda Setting We tell the public which way the cat is jumping The public will take care of the cat Agenda setting type of communication that shows the importance of particular issues Press doesn t tell people what to think but what to think about Measuring Agenda Setting Effects Indicated only when researchers are able to measure public opinion before and after media coverage of specific issues Why election campaigns are popular among researchers Gatekeeping Professionals cannot pass along ALL the news of the day what should they choose 0 Set the agenda 0 Gauge the value of news on the basis of importance to readers and viewers Control over the flow of news Conceptual Roots Walter Lippmann Public Opinion 0 News media is responsible for shaping peoples perceptions of the world 0 Newsmedia projections of the world create a pseudoenvironment for each news consumer exists in addition to the actual environment Agenda Building Lang and Lang Differs from agenda setting in that 0 Different issues require different amounts and kinds of coverage to gain attention 0 The object that is the focus of attention still needs to be framed must stand for something 0 Spokemen must command media attention Research Tradition Phase 1 Initial Study Chapel Hill First empirical test on Lippmann s ideas Tested the influence of campaign coverage on the public perceptions of the importance of issues What are you most concerned about these days Analyzed topics in local newspapers TV and radio Found the public responses had almost an identical agenda to the media 0 Transfer of salience o The agenda setting influence of mass communication Phase 2 Replication Four phases of growth in agendasetting research 1 Publication of the original study in 1972 2 Replication and examination of continent conditions in their second study 3 Expansion of the original idea of agenda setting into other areas 4 Focs on the sources of media agenda 1973 Replication by Funkhouser 0 Content analysis 0 Survey of before and after Phase 3 Contingent Factors Occupation education levels and geographic locations found to affect the degree to which media were responsible for setting their issue agendas Phase 4 Who Sets the Media Agenda 1980s Sources of media agenda 0 Became the dependent rater than the independent variable Extension to new domains Cognitive paradigm o 3 primary factors of influence Person s behavior Peron s cognitive abilities Environmental events to which a person is exposed Lecture 10 Effects of the News Telling Us What to Think About Media Today Life imitates art 0 University of Illinois Chicago student decides to reenact 5O Shades of Grey with a girl who didn t want part of it 0 Judge How can someonelet a movie persuade him to dothis Last time Began discussing effects of news presentation 0 Gatekeeping o Hostile Media Phenomenon o Selectivity How Media Influences Society AgendaSetting o More coverage of an issuemore importance in the minds of public 0 GatekeepingWHAT 0 Agenda setting HOW MUCH 0 ex Ray Rice media brought attention to domestic abuse Based on the idea Public does not have ability to know all and must rely heavily on the media Walter Lippmann We are all Cognitive Misers 0 We consume just enough information to get through our daily life Core of Agenda Setting News media don t tell people what to think but what to thin about Chapen Hill Study McCombsShaw 1968 Tested Chapel Hill NC voters on their views of issues ex civil rights for 1968 Presidential Race Nixon vs Humphrey Found media emphasispublic perception Horserace coverage who is in the lead fase perceptions of candidates leader must be best Pew Center for People and the Press May 22 2012 News Interest vs News Coverage What people thought was important was related to what was covered Zucker Confirms It His study 1978 found news coverage did increase prior to public opinion increase confirmed agenda setting BUT study found personal experience filters and could override media emphasis 0 Media looses their power Key Nature of the Issue Unobtrusive lssues those with which we have little to no direct experience 0 ex Climate change Chinese pollution etc 0 People more reliant on media information If you have no direct experience with an issue you will be more susceptible to agenda setting because you have no frame of reference Experience can Filter Obtrusive issues those the public experience directly unemployment crime taxes etc 0 Agenda setting does NOT occur 0 Instead public may be influencing media agenda 0 ex If you like a brand of pizza you wont believe bad press about the pizza Agenda Setting Problem It is very difficult to show cause and and Social Scientists Media Reality more powerful than previously expected Three points of the triangle 1 Reality 2 Media Reality media agenda 3 Public Perception of Reality public agenda Our brain has a hard time of differentiating what is real Why Does Agenda Setting Matter By emphasizing some issues and essentially disregarding others news media is focusing on specific considerations 0 Individuals who pay a great deal of attention to the news media are only learning about some issues Implications for public opinion 0 News broadcasts and articles tell us what issues to think about Next Step Framing Framing Using a set of expectations about how the world works to make sense of social situations 0 Framing The Problem 0 Supplies a context and helps define the issue 0 Helps us understand and interpret by simplifying experience ex framing the conversation at the party to your significant other Framing ln Essence Central organizing idea that supplies the context for an issue Process of selecting and emphasizing certain aspects of messages through key words and phrases or visual images How you choose to frame that Benefits of Media Framing Media uses cues to help us know how to interpret messages Through cues frames simplify message production rather than telling a story in an hour can tell a story in 30 seconds But can present stories without the proper context Where Frames Come From Journalist and Editors news producers may favor one side or the other due to bias or time restriction LobbyistsPublic Relations Professionals job means creating a favorable image for an organization and its products Framing the Issue Lack of media context can misrepresent issues for readers 0 ex US and Guns Dangers of Framing Role of Emotion 0 Images that provoke anger and fear are remembered easier 0 Violent imagesmore involvement with stories 0 Negative news stokes increased memory of news Lang Newhagen and Reeves If It Bleeds lt Leads Most common local TV news stories crime Results of Media Framing Students prefer to get their news from The Daily Show context vs hype On Democracy 0 Attack ads make people think politics is complicated 0 Makes them believe their vote won t make any difference Conclusion Media Framing Process of selecting and emphasizing certain aspects of news messages words images etc o No news story published by only one person Frames help audiences understand and interpret experiences 0 Frames central organizing idea cues Simplifiying producing and interpretation Lecture 11 The Message from Our Media Marketing or Manipulation Media Today BIG win for Net Neutrality 0 FCC to declare Internet a public good Facebook changes how we Mourn 0 Like culture changes how people express negative emotions such as grief on the site 0 Friend dying from cancer but all of the posts were uplifting Do we really express our emotions when negative or are we too afraid of being unfriended or not getting likes Last time Agenda Setting 0 All about how much to cover an issue Framing o All about how to cover and present an issue Today The massage of target marketing Modern data feeds the message 0 They are not Two Types of Messages 1 News Messages 0 Focus on objective information to inform the public 2 Marketing Messages 0 Focus on the persuasive information to influence public decisions and behaviors Media Need to Know Us to Persuade Us Media conduct research on their audiences to target their advertisements more effectively 0 Magazines newspaper readership surveys 0 Internet popup surveys sit registration 0 Use of Facebook Netflix Amazon Expedia etc Getting to Know You Demographics 0 Data variables about who we are based on life characteristics ex age gender education income ethnicity Marketers match demographics of desired audience to the demographics of particular media ex Latinos are 24 more likely to say they buy new electronic equipment before any of their friends Psychographics Data variables on what we do 0 Used to find our attitudes beliefs and behavior 0 Traditionally measured through surveys or focus groups Now measured via onine behavior 0 Better way to target than demographics ex Maxim sells it readership o 80 use fragrances at least once a week US avg 29 o More than one third of Maxim readers surveyed spend more than 300 annually on grooming products US avg 89 But There s a Better Way Than Surveys ex Facebook adds Every Purchase Leaves a Trail Marketers and advertisers track everything 0 Data trails 0 Data brokers Blue Kai 0 Terms and Conditions May Apply movie They Monitor our Behavior Advertisers have increased their spending on behaviorally targeted onine advertising 0 2008 77 million 0 2014 26 billion Even our Technology Tracks Us Kindle tracks what you read 0 How long it takes you to read a page 0 What you skip o What you don t finish Why It s a Gold Mine Disconnect shows what third parties are connected to each website 60 minutes episode on data brokers How Big is Big Data Every 2 days the world creates an amount of data equal to the amount created between the dawn of civilization and 2003 Not the First Time We ve Been Tracked Nielsen TV ratings number of people watching a TV show Rating of TV homes total watching a particular show Share of TV homes with TV on and watching a particular show Viewing estimate number of people watching a show based on live viewing AND DVR playback the same day KEY the higher the rating the more its costs to buy advertising during the program Old Habit New Technology People are spending significantly more time with television each day through new programs like Hulu Netflix Vimeo etc 0 Consumers credit TV ads as more influential in making a purchase decision TV commercials drive viewers to go online to find out more information o Notjust a means to buy an item not a means to get the people onto their website Shows Become Targeted at You House of Cards based on data analysis 0 30 million playsday o 4 million user ratings 0 3 million searchers o Netflix determined that the overlap of three areas would make House of Cards a successful entry into originally programming David Fincher Kevin Spacey House of Cards Britain Knew demographic before the show was even written Created a show to meet that need The Net Result Harder to be exposed to new informationproducts We are directed to products companies already know we like Privacy concerns Targeted marketing eliminates the something new element Conclusion Every internet movement feeds the data machine Everything designed to cater to our every desire Does it make for a marketing dream or privacy nightmare