Week 1: Media Effects, Social Science, & Scientific Approach
Week 1: Media Effects, Social Science, & Scientific Approach JMC:1100:0AAA
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie Kreischer on Saturday March 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JMC:1100:0AAA at University of Iowa taught by Patrick Wright in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Media Uses and Effects in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 03/07/15
Lecture 2 What is Social Science Media Today Pirates vs Corporations discussion Point of Social Science 1 Our understanding knowledge of the world is socially constructed based on interaction 2 Humans are basically curious we want to know how and why things work 3 Social science helps us 1 Understand causes and effects 2 Predict out future behavior 3 Understand our place in society Social Constructionism Theory Key social interaction and use of language construct our reality 0 Tries to make sen of what it means to be human 0 Reality can vary based on people s perspective 0 Reality is perspective 0 Knowledge is often limited to our experiences Immanuel Kant supported this theory strongly Four Methods of Knowing from CS Perice 1 Authority 0 Trusted source 0 Person book newspaper etc 0 Can you trust your sources 2 A Priori o A feeling or hunch about what is right or wrong for you 0 I d like to try thator not 3 Tenac y 0 Based on past beliefs and preferences 0 We ve always done it this wayquot 0 Based on history but limits innovation 4 Science 0 Starts with questioning beliefs or what is known 0 Dome with observation testing and analysis ex Thomas Edison failed 1000 times before success Moving from Knowing to Showing Social science research fills in our gaps of knowledge 0 Seeks answers to understand why we do things 0 Attempts to explain social behavior and find phenomenon Social Science Research Student of Social Phenomena 0 Based on logic and observation 0 Tools starts with hypothesis evidence produces a theory and sometimes a law 0 Scientists use the Scientific Method to establish evidence and support theory The Science Chain Hypothesis proposed explanation for phenomenon or behavior based on limit information Theory statement that predicts a relationship between concepts of social phenomenon o Predicts and explains behavior through more evidence 0 NOT DEFINITIVE more general or based on averages Law explanation for phenomenon that is constant 0 Very rare for social science because social behavior changes 5 Characteristics of Scientific Method 1 Scientific research is public not private 1 Public research is unbiased and published Contributes to sum of human knowledge Done by academics polling firms etc 2 Private research has an agendabias Conducted to support a product or perspective Doesn t have to reveal study design Conducted by corporations political causes and political candidates Tries to persuade you of something 2 It is objective 0 Methods increase the odds of ruling out our biases Scientific research is empirical Science is cumulative 0 Studies build upon themselves and others 5 Science is predictive 0 We propose a hypothesis and test them 59 Benefits of Scientific Method Mrs Morton s Soothing Cough Syrup for Children 1910 o 65 mg of morphine chloroform and heroin Modern science reveals truth about highly additive drugs 60200 mg of morphine can be fatal Herion changes brain chemistry 0 Creator Bayer sponsored Nazi torture experiments Ecstasy is the most popular college drug Conclusion Information is only as good as the veracity of the source Scientific Method helps us avoid bias and prejudice 0 IF we follow the 5 characteristics Chapter 1 A Scientific Approach to the Study of Media Effects Columbine and Virginia Tech discusssion 0 Exposure to violence from media increases violece 0 Massive amounts of news coverage then follows 0 Trigger copycat crimesquot 0 Hard to discovery truth from opinions Experience vs Authority vs Science 0 ExperienceEmpiricism Can be helpful or prove misleading 0 Authority Professionals etc Might not have the right information 0 Science Systematic observation Goals of Science Prediction Explanation Understanding m How Goals of Science Are Achieved Most important factor in generating experiences is a theory but may also come a em 0 Theory consists of a set of statements 0 These statements identify key concepts of the theory and specify how they are related 0 Theories yield hypotheses that are testable by observation 0 Forbidden fruit effect psychological reactance theory hypothesis that states whenever a person s behavioral freedom is threatened or restricted the person will feel psychological reactance which is an unpleasant feeling and in order to get rid of this feeling the person will attempt to restore his or her freedom ex by engaging in the behavioral that is threatened or restricted o Constant interplay between theory and data Theories are inspired by certain observations Existing theories are often modified qualified or discarded on the basis of data Falsifiability must be possible when thinking about a hypothesis 0 Thinking ahead about what sort of data could be observed to make the hypothesis false 0 ex the secret pitch No way to determine if the theory s claims are valid without falsifiability Creativity Generality of science to apply to other cases 0 Case studies often focus on casespecific details 0 Scientific research is more applicable to general patterns across large groups of individuals Science acknowledges the existence of objective truth Science assumes a skeptical attitude which often leads to controversy 0 ex ESP Science can t answer certain kinds of questions 0 Can tell us how something is likely to cause something else but they can t tell us what someone should do to absolutely fix it
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