Week 2: Brief History of Media Effects Research
Week 2: Brief History of Media Effects Research JMC:1100:0AAA
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie Kreischer on Saturday March 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JMC:1100:0AAA at University of Iowa taught by Patrick Wright in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Media Uses and Effects in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 03/07/15
Chapter 3 Brief History of Media Effects Research History of mass communication is important because current research findings often echo previous research findings 0 ex War coverage making little impact on public opinion Events that impacted mass media 0 1898 Congress Declares War on Spain 0 Prominent player in the decision to go to war newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst 0 You furnish the pictures and I ll furnish the war 0 Many believer Hearst stirred up public opinion in favor of the war In retrospect historians don t see this as a major component of going to war 0 People saw the power of the newspaper to influence events 0 1917 Propaganda in World War o Woodrow Wilson created the Committee on Public Information Advised Wilson on how public relations could be used to influence public opinion about the war Engaged PR on a larger scale never before seen Movies public speakers articles in newspapers magazines posters Use of wartime brooaganda 19203 Movies Exploded as Main Stream Entertainment 19291932 The Payne Fund Studies 0 Pavne Fund studies discovered the impact of movies on children and adolescents Content 75 of all movies fit into the categories of love crime and sex Emotional Impact Galvanic skin resbonse when a person has an emotional reaction they often sweat and moisture conducts electricity which allowed them to measure intensity of emotional reaction by shooting small undetectable electric currents through two electrodes Measured by micromhos Found that younger children were not affected by romantic scenes but older adolescents dramatically were Important distinction between younger and older kids Measuring physiological responses to media messages became an integral technique Behavior Herbert Blumer questionnaires and interviews with children adolescents and young adults Said they definitely believed they had been influenced by social media Theory of Social Learning Bandura More likely to imitate characters who receive rewards Problem this technique assumes people are aware of how media affects them Own introspection may not be accurate People are often not aware of what the media messages do to them Aftermath Created the legacy of fear belief that the media were dangerous Still resonates with modern day 0 1930s Invasion from Mars 0 Dominant communication medium radio 0 Orson Welles narrated radio adaptation of War of Worlds Program turned into a alien invasion Realistic format made about 1 million people believe it was real Random events helped promote the illusion of reality power outage in a town in Washington 0 Research at Princeton 0 Most Americans had tremendous confidence in radio as a news medium 0 Many listeners didn t hear the beginning of the show that the program was a dramatic adaptation 0 People who believed the program was real were people who had Less critical ability Less selfconfidnece Less emotional security Strong religious beliefs Early Theory of Media Effects The Magic Bullet Model Magic bullet model or hypodermic needle model once the message reaches the audience it will exert powerful relatively uniform effects on everyone who processes it 0 Too extreme and simplistic The People s Choice Study A New View of Media Effects 1940 study on how and why people deice to vote as they do during the presidential election Why Use Control Groups 0 Responses from control group and main panel did not differ dramatically o Indicated that the longitudinal panel design was a viable method for studying change 0 Longitudinal survey design is still an important technique in research today Media Impact in the 1940 Campaign 0 Conversion changing voters opinions o Reinforcement assuring voters that their intention was worthwhile and correct 0 Newer research seemed to indicate that media had only limited effects The Decatur Study The TwoStep Flow of Communication Twostep flow theory that media affected a few key people and those people influenced others through facetoface communication The Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communications Sample of 800 women 16yrs o Tried to find opinion leaders 0 Fuzzy and often imprecise study Noteworthy because it showed media influence was complex Experiments on World War II Movies 0 Germany created many propagandist films 0 US government employed someone to make US films Capra used the German s film footage to turn it against them Experiments on Mass Communication Films increased knowledge and facts on war Very little evidence to show a change in motivation Ceiling effect levels of motivation of most of the soldiers who saw the movies ay have already been about as high as they could go Reinforced the effects of limited media effects The Limited Effects Perspective 0 Chief spokesperson Joseph Klapper o Talked about the limited effects of media TV came out 0 Radio messages didn t change many votes 0 Voter volatility scholars expect that media may have more of an impact now than in 1940s because of so many independents and ticket splitters o Selective exoosure to communication people are motivated to expose themselves voluntarily to messages in which they already agree Evils of Comic Books 1950s Frederic Wertham book that described the evils of comic books 0 Research based on selective analysis of comic book content 0 Highlighted the most offensive material and apply it to the whole industry 0 Corrupted adolescents o Claimed Batman and Robin were homosexual lovers 0 Superman s S was close to the famous Nazi 88quot Dawn of Television End of 1950 s 90 of Americans had a TV in their home Reports of imitative crimes proliferated People started to look into the impact of media violence Many Types of Media Effects No simple answer to the question of whether the media affects people Microlevel effects effects on individual media consumers 0 Studies that rely on experimental methods are designed to uncover microlevel Macrolevel effects research that examines media impact n large communities 0 Data is gathered on communities by looking at their social programs political actions etc Specific content how certain programs affect viewers 0 ex difference is those who watch violent media vs nature media Diffuse or general effect effects that can be applied to everyone 0 ex TV watching linked to obesity because of the sedentary aspect of it Changes in peoole s attitudes cognitive changes because of exposure to media 0 Attitude change does not always produce behavior change Alteration media producing a change in public opinion Stability media effects that reinforce the status quo 0 ex people tend to listen closely to ads for their own candidates Lecture 3 Brief History of Media Effects Research Media Bias University of Michigan trashing hotel room 0 Stereotyping college students 0 Readers not focused on UMich they are focused on college students Fits that stereotype When it comes to a decision between student loan debt and retirement people may think of this Especially Greek system 0 East Coast Storm News bias New York City is about to have snow and now there is lots of coverage Wanted federal funding Center of media coverage More coverage on New York teams as well Easy to find coverage lowa flooded but there was no coverage of that Today s Topics The History of Mass Media Movies drive the study of Mass Media Powerful Effects Model Gutenberg gets it started 1455 his printing press allows mass pro ducting of liter able such as the Bible Introduces reading and free thinking in the masses Triggers Protestant Reformation 0 Martin Luther printed his thesis and showed people around town Germans make it formal 1605 Germans create first printed journal for prices of goods in European ports 16001700 Dozens of similarjournals are created at ports across Europe content begins to include social gossip and sports The US joins in 1690 Boston publishes the Publick Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestick America s first newspaper Following 1764 Harford Courant 1847 Chicago Tribune 1849 Iowa Star became Des Main Registrar 1851 New York Times 1889 Wall Street Journal Media Presentation Rational Media content was logical and trustworthy o Factual information Products sold based on practical need 0 Blue jeanssturdy and durable not stylish Until Hearst opens a New Door 1898 SpanishAmerica War 1st ex of mass media propaganda William Randolph Hearst o Wasn t selling enough newspapers 0 You furnish the pictures and I ll furnish the warquot Wanted gruesome ugly brutal Wanted the country to go to war to sell his newspapers Paid to have American military vessel blown up for drama and propaganda o Wrote about the Cuban Crisis Mass Media becomes a Concept Woodrow Wilson creates Committee on Public Information to sell World War I to Americans Posters appeal to emotions nationalism pride etc and not logic for support 0 Uncle Sam I want YOU for the US Army 0 Needed to sell the war 0 Appealing to patriotism New Star is Born 1920s Movies become extremely popular 0 1922 40 million tickets sold weekly Silent filmmakers enjoy new form of entertainment 0 Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat but he Lumiere Brothers 0 Controversial because it looked like the train was going to come into the theatre Birth of a Nation 1915 Classic film for its inventive camera use and cinematography Racist firm that triggers the Ku Klux Klan 0 Most racist film ever Creates new awareness of power of visual images 0 People weren t used to seeing images on film 0 Believed that was what had to have been going on 1900s Social factors lead to Social Science Industrialization Modernization Increase in education Growing population Immigration Social Science becomes a Big Deal Development of Mass Society Theory 0 Were people all being effected equally Growing Film Industry 0 People will be corrupted by movies Development of Statistics 0 Thousands of movies had to be catalogued and analyzed Movies became a Payne Study 1933 First mass communications research study published Payne Fund Study 19291932 0 Study conducted by university psychologists sociologists and educators that used experiments and interview 0 Children remember 60 of what adults do 90 of violent contact three months later Key the believed movie content was real Germans learn from World War I 1933 Nazis use film radio and posters to take power Realize control of media control of people 0 Told everyone that the Germans were better than everyone Joseph Goebbels Think of the press as a great keyboard on which the Germans can play 0 Propagandist of these ways to sell the Nazi party to Germany Media Found to Influence attitudes and Behavior Portrayal of unfamiliar people and issues chafe attitudes Adolescents learned new behaviors o How to light a cigarette in a manly fashion 0 How to flirt o How to kiss 0 Etc Mass Society Theories Arise Conclusion they came to Media corrupts society 0 Influences average people and undermines social order legacy of fear Based on study of industrialization modernization urbanization education immigration 0 ex Nazis used media messages of fear to get Germans to vote against democracy Powerful Effects Model Mass Society Theory Payne Fund results reinforced the idea that media have Powerful Effects on audiences 0 Scientists created two new terms to describe powerful effects same meaning Magic Bullet Theory or Hypodermic Needle Theory Linear Communication Theory messages are sent directly to our brain from media Conclusion New Visual Media make people start to question nature of reality Filmmakers use this to produce more popular entertainment and propaganda Powerful Effets Model dominates social science Lecture 4 Brief History of Media Effects Research Cont Media Today University of Wisconsin budget cuts Gov Walker s plan slahes 300 million from school Provides 220 million for new Bucks arena Watching to see how students react The movie Selma Last time Gutenberg 1900 1900s Movies and newspapers create mass media as concept Payne studie s Outline Radio storms that nation Powerful effects under fire 0 Effects actually limited Opinion leaders and the twostep flow of information Drunk history Won t be seen the same way by everyone in the room 1930s RadioFamily Friend Great depression fuels radio popularity 0 60 of people in the US owned a radio 0 Unemployment extremely high no money to go to movies Centerpiece of morningevening entertainment FDR and fireside chats o Soothe the nation 0 Tell the nation what he planned to do and what programs were coming War of the Worlds Orson Welles 23 years old produces a radio show based on HG Wells novel Goalincrease audiences for the Mercury Theater on the Airquot Also provide listeners with something new and exciting Show Must Go On Oct 30 1938 Devil s Night Welles broadcasts War of the World s 1 out of 4 American s listened in Many people caught it in the middle American loses its Mind Oct 30 1938 An innocent radio program causes a national panic People close to the story flee their homes amp call police and government agencies 0 Ransacked grocery stores Could it Happen Today 2009 Balloon Boy in Colorado 0 Boy floating in a balloon but wasn t actually in it 1999 The Blair Witch Project made with home cameras amp promoted with website 0 60000 film earned 140 million 0 Years later Paranormal Activity 0 Used technology people weren t used to seeing in a false realm 0 Now people do that on the web too Study 1 The Princeton Studies War of the Worlds Caused a panic because people trusted radio information 0 Failed to belie news format could report something false Similar Types of People Panicked 0 Less critical ability 0 Less selfconfidence and emotionally secure 0 Strong religious beliefs Apocalypse Limited Effects Theories Take Over Key finding not everyone panicked 0 First direct evidence that people react differently to mass media messages Limited Effects Theories mass media messages don t influence directly 0 More of a trigger that can influence behavior and beliefs 0 Key media doesn t tell s what to thinkbut what to think about Study 2 People s Choice Study Studied voters before 1940 Presidential election Panel study of 2400 voters 0 Erie Country Ohio Strategically interviewed people to see what factors influence people to vote Found campaigns reinforced attitudes instead of changing them People chose their media for the same reason called selective exposure 0 Same holds true for internet content choices today We trust our social networks to provide us information Opinion Leaders Is 0 An active media user 0 Held in high esteem by their friendsfamilies 0 Usually considered an expert in a domain Who are the opinion leaders in your life People or people through media Facebook TwoStep Flow How it Happens TwoStep Flow ideas slow from media to opinion leadersthen to the general public Opinion Leaders have a lot of influence over what we think and how we behave lnAdmm o 2011 study on Twitter users 50 of tweets consumed are generated by 20000 elite users also Popel like people like them Celebrities listen to celebrities Bloggers listen to bloggers More Evidence against Powerful Effects War propaganda 0 US in WI Nazies in WWII US less successful in WWII why 0 Ceiling effect high motivation dampens media effect people already fired up Limited Effects Theory Rules TV reveals more toes of effects dependent on 0 Messages 0 Audience 0 Medium chosen media form Today Effects Vary between Macro vs Micro Content Specific vs Diffuse General Attitudinal vs BehavioralCognitive Effects Alteration vs Stabilization of Opinion Conclusion Limited effectsmedia does not influence people equally in a powerful way Opinion leaders drive our media beliefs People also selectively expose themselves to content that agrees with them
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