Psychology of Adjustment PSYC 2101 Chapter 1 Terms
Psychology of Adjustment PSYC 2101 Chapter 1 Terms 2101
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Apollo12 on Monday April 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2101 at University of Georgia taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Psy of Adjustment in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
Psychobabble – Used to describe the “hip” but hopefully vague language in many selfhelp books. Narcissism – A personality trait marked by an inflated sense of importance, a need for attention and admiration, a sense of entitlement, and a tendency to exploit others. Psychology – The science that studies the behavior and the physiological and mental processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems. Behavior – Any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism. Clinical Psychology – The branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders. Adjustment – Refers to the psychological processes through which people manage or cope with the demands and challenges of everyday life. Empiricism – The premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation. The two main types of research methods in psychology are experimental and correlational. Experiment – A research method in which the investigator manipulates one (independent) variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second (dependent) variable as a result. Independent Variable – A condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable. Dependent Variable – The variable that is thought to be affected by the manipulations of the independent variable. The Experimental Group – Consists of the subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable. The Control Group – Consists of similar subjects (as the exper. group) who don’t receive the special treatment given to the experimental group. Correlation – Exists when two variables are related to each other. Correlation Coefficient – A numerical index of the degree of relationship that exists between two variables. Positive Correlation – Indicates that two variables covary in the same direction, meaning high scores on variable x are associated with high scores on variable y and low scores on variable x are associated with low scores on variable y. Negative Correlation – Indicates that two variables covary in the opposite direction, meaning high scores on variable x are associated with low scores on variable y, however those that score low on variable x tend to score high on variable y. Naturalistic Observation – A researcher engages in careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects. Case Study – An indepth investigation of an individual subject. Surveys – Structured questionnaires designed to solicit information about specific aspects of participants’ behavior. Subjective WellBeing – An individual’s personal assessments of their overall happiness or life satisfaction. Affective Forecasting – Efforts to predict one’s emotional reactions to future events. Hedonic Adaptation – Occurs when the mental scale that people use to judge the pleasantness unpleasantness of their experiences shifts so that their neutral point, or baseline for comparison, is changed. Retrieval Practice – Read a section of text and then set it aside and try to recall as much information as possible; then review the material again and repeat the recall effort. Overlearning – Continued rehearsal of material after you have first appeared to master it. Mnemonic Devices – Strategies for enhancing memory, designed to make abstract material more meaningful. Acrostics – Phrases (or poems) in which the first letter of each word (or line) functions as a cue to help you recall the abstract words that begin with the same letter. Acronym – A word formed out of the first letters of a series of words (variation of acrostics). The Link Method – Involves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together. The Method of Loci – Involves taking an imaginary walk along a familiar path where you have associated items you want to remember with certain locations.
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