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Week 1: Colonial Dissent

by: Kylie Kreischer

Week 1: Colonial Dissent JMC:1200:0AAA

Kylie Kreischer
GPA 3.96
Media History and Culture
Frank Durham

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Chapter 1: Colonial Dissent Lecture 1: Colonial Dissent
Media History and Culture
Frank Durham
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie Kreischer on Sunday March 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JMC:1200:0AAA at University of Iowa taught by Frank Durham in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Media History and Culture in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Iowa.

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Date Created: 03/08/15
Chapter 1 Colonial Dissent Overview 13 years prior to the Declaration of Independence the colonists were proud to call themselves British and celebrated the British victory in the Seven Years War Independence became a movement but many colonies opposed it Opinions were the object of struggle and carried out in American newspapers and pamphlets Objectives Introduce several concepts to establish the beginning ofAmerican journalism Nativism explains the struggle over the ethnic religious and political power Highlights freedom of press Role of propaganda in promoting war with Britain 0 Samuel Adam s threepartjournalistic strategy of employing newspaper brochures and pamphlets to reach colonists Colonial Dissent 1690 first newspaper was published in American colonies British governor opposed the idea of free press Culturally based division ethnicity nationality and religion played a fundamental role in who could participate in free press 0 Nativism the policy of protecting the nativeborn or established inhabitants against those of immigrants Dramatic reports foreshadowed the concept of tabloids and also appealed to the same lesseducated audience Trial of Peter Zenger 0 Published a newspaper that was against the governor of New York 0 Charged with seditious libel and was jailed 0 His attorney argued that his words were the truth and the appeal prevailed 0 As a result colonial press acted with more freedom because publishers could defend themselves with evidence of the truth Journal of Occurrences 1768 British government sent troops to Boston Concerned that the colonies might revolt Sam Adams wrote the Journal of Occurrences o Stated that the British had broken their social contract after introducing the Stamp Act requiring local residents to house troops and sending over military rule 0 Diarylike entries describing the mistreatment of Bostonians by the King s soldiers Much of it was made up but was claiming to be true and used as propaganda to encourage the revolution Foreshadowed wire services by reprinting stories from other newspapers as an economy and a way to broadcast shared views 0 Propaganda translated to to spread in this scenario John Holt publisher of New York Journal helped Adams distribute his newspaper with a wire service system he established now known as the Associated Press March 5 1770 Boston Massacre Journal of Occurrences framed the events in a favorable light to the colonial cause and used it as propaganda The Stamp Act Taxed the colonies to recover the money lost in the Seven Years War 0 Sugar Act of 1764 Reduce smuggling of sugar 0 Stamp Act of 1765 Similar act had been in place in Britain for 50 years Mostly affected lawyers and printers 1755 articulated of freedom of press in the Boston Gazette right of the press to monitor and report on the abuses of power of government in a way that was essential to and coeval with all free Governments 0 Stamp Act made printers feel assaulted John Adams also wrote broadsides onepage declarations against the British which could be posted in public houses and other gathering areas and pamphlets The ProBritish Press Royalist publisher James Rivington published the New York Gazzetteer which printed broadsides for both colonists and British 0 Hanged for effigy 0 Spy who helped secure the British fleet for George Washington and the colonial cause Lecture 1 Colonial Dissent Key Words Ideology Propaganda vs Journalism 0 Propaganda not true not verifiable Freedom of press Press resist oppression Concepts Framing socially contrasted meaning Ideology meaning in the service of power Propaganda blackgraywhite 0 ex Journal of Occurrences made up but intended to inspire action 0 Gray ex Sam Adams and the Tea Party 0 Black 0 White public information for the good Nativism a policy of favoring inhabitants over immigrants Timeline 1690 Harris Publick Occurrences Both FORREIGN and DOMESTICK 1723 Ben Franklin editor of the Courant 1733 Zenger trial 0 Took a strong position against governor William Cosby charged and jailed but in his trial his lawyer argued that what he said was truth 0 Truth and defense 1763 British defeat French in America and India 1764 Sam Adams writes against British authority and for home rule in the Boston Gazette during the Stamp Act 1765 Stamp Act episode Freedom of the Press 1755 Bradford s Gazette 1768 1769 British station troops in Boston 0 Adams publishes Journal of Occurrences in Sept 1768 stops in 1769 False details 0 Wire servie analogy John Holt publisher of the The New York Journal Netowrk distributed of Sam Adam s Journal of Occurrences March 5 1770 Boston Massacre Boston Gazzettes response to the Boston Massacre o Demonizeddehumanize the enemy 0 Preparing the colonists mindsets for war against the British 0 PAY ATTENTION TO THE ACTUAL PASSAGES FROM SOURCES 1773 Boston Tea Party Sam Adams 1775 Lexington and Concorde 1776 Paine writes the pamphlet Common Sense 0 Inspirational track for George Washington and his troops 0 Not traditional journalism 0 Propagandist 17761783 Paine writes the The Crisis Essays 12 0 First Best Seller Ideology The basis of social organization Avalue system in social conflict with others Dominant and subordinate positions Meaning in the service of power A belief system that leads to action British Ideology Based on A divine right the Tudor myth Dominant power NOT independence No unalienable rights 0 No one had the right to selfgovern or challenge the authority of the King Based on agency 0 Agency the innate right and ability of individuals to act of their own will 0 The right of the individual to be governed in consensual dialog Stamp Act Sugar Act What Sam Adams and Thomas Paine wrote against Should be able to have a political stake in their own lives The Journal of Occurrences was propaganda Used untrue statements to persuade and mobilize colonists Intended to frame colonists reactions and to incite their actions Intended to demonize the enemy Journalism was not developed at that point and it was not the time Common Sense as propaganda Framed the British as the enemy Framed the idea of revolution as necessary Revolutionary Journalism Samuel Adams amp Thomas Paine Sam Adams 0 Journalistic Strategy Adams wrote news articles for the New York Journal and the Journal of Occurrences Analogy to multimedia strategy Like Obama State of the Union Address Also in Boston Gazette Broadsides one page quick cheap key tactic Pamphlets Thomas Paine 0 Author of Common Sense and a champion of The Age of Reason 0 Edited Pennsylvania Magazine for Ben Franklin 0 Early abolitionist Colonists were all for their own freedom but not about slaves Made him unpopular 0 Common Sense 1776 0 Crisis Essays 17761783 Conclusions Zenger trial early signal of freedom of the press as a principle But not certain The Sedition Act of 1798Federalists seditious libel First Amendment open to interpretation Adams and Paine as propagandists and early journalists Trajectory Outsiders the colonists Their goal for change revolution Mainstreamdominant


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