Week 3: Abolition & Fredrick Douglass
Week 3: Abolition & Fredrick Douglass JMC:1200:0AAA
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie Kreischer on Sunday March 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JMC:1200:0AAA at University of Iowa taught by Frank Durham in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Media History and Culture in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 03/08/15
Understanding Fredrick Douglas Overview Mainstream histories can help us understand Fredrick Douglas politics but not his journalism Many books aboutjournalism don t mention him or if they mention him they don t explain his journalism Antebellumjournalism Stages of Understanding Douglas 1 Neglect 0 Not viewed as important in the history of American journalism 2 Inclusion and Accommodation 0 Included because he is useful in understanding the history of his day Inclusion is a dead end street carries no inherent intellectual challenge 0 Douglas role is rarely examined in depth 0 Always either ignored summarized or praised 3 Interpretive Stage 0 Understanding news as a form of mass culture 0 Interplay between the news and minority voices is a central issue in journalism and history What brought Douglass to journalism in the first place White papers were against black rights Two questions that should be answered in regard to Douglass journalism 1 Wat was the void Douglas sought to fill 0 Why did he chose to have his own paper 2 How did Douglass fit into the spirit of nonpartisanship that had been growing since the 1830s Jacksonian Democracy Schudosn called the age of egalitarianism o Dated and discredited model Actually promoted inequality Jacksonian Age 1 Rich got richer poor got poorer democracy limited to white men 0 Jackson had empathy for the poor but his Iaissezfaire policies may have hurt them 2 Marked by vicious and bloody conflicts 0 Especially partisan and antiabolitionists o Destroying presses 0 Trying to lynch antiabolitionist mobs o Affected by the quantities of hard liquor consumed 3 Violence often instigated by newspaper men 0 Stage riots 4 Violence mostly directed at free blacks o Marginalized 0 People advocating sending freed blacks back to Africa 0 Dred Scott condition questioned whether blacks could be citizens o Blacks always on the verge of total exclusion Douglas s Split with Garrison Douglas s most dramatic political act One scholar argues that is was due to his advocacy of black separatism May be because Garrison rejected the US Constitution 0 Did not agree with this rejection of the political system 0 Wanted to enter America not drop out of it Chapter 2 Abolition Slavery Almost tore the country apart in 1861 Also was a key role in founding the US 1787 Constitution 35 compromise o Slaves would count for 35 of a human being when determining seats in Congress and distribution of tax revenues o Divided the North and South Northern Quakers slaves had souls Southern Protestants slaves as property Said this was endorsed by the Old Testament Religion became an important aspect in this argument Jackson Administration Supporter slavery and white supremacy Challenged by South Carolina to tax the state through the policy of nullification 0 States could not be help to account by fed gov o Echoed the argument over Stamp Act 0 Threatened foreshadowing the Civil War which occurred 29 years later Abolitionists Thought of as threats to democracy Caused cultural and political divisions between North and South 2 ingredients for social movements 0 Will to act against the mainstream agency 0 Means to spread the word Abolitionists formed their social movement through the use of press 0 Use of newspapers to construct a social frame Thomas Paine Early Abolitionist Challenged slavery Pennsylvania Journal and the WeeklyAdven iser Paine talked about the wickedness of slavetrade Founded an antislavery society in America in 1775 19th Century Abolitionist Journalism As early as the 1820s Freedom s Journal blackjournalists Samuel Cornish and John Russwurm 0 Changes to The Rights forAl Russwurm and Garrison found the American AntiSlavery Society Russwurm began writing under pen ahem Artistides 0 Wanted to reform society with Godly principles 0 Wanted immediate end to slavery 1831 formed the Liberator 0 Newspaper dedicated to ending slavery 0 Tone would be uncompromising in pursuit of divine justice Maria Stewart first black woman to speak to mixed race audiences and the first to address women s rights 0 Had a column in the Liberator called quotThe Ladies Departmentquot 0 Prime influences were religious Argues all people are equal in the eyes of God New Testament 0 After one of her speeches a group of black men threw rotten tomatoes at her after she criticized them for failing to follow basic Christian principles Frederick Douglass Garrison s protege and counterpart Freed slave who published his autobiography Editor of the North Star Dual role of a former slave and a journalist Garrison burned the Constitution in public during a speech which showed the difference between him and Douglass he could get away with that and still have a citizenship Civil War 1863 Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation freeing the slaves 0 13th amendment December 6 1865 slavery ended all together 0 14th amendment 1868 equal treatment of all citizens 0 15th amendment 1870 right to vote for all citizens Lecture 4 Abolition Advocacy journalists out of the mainstream tied to the social movement advocating for a cause FROM Social movements new social ideas where change can come from promoted a nonmainstream ideology intended to lead to action in this case the abolition of slavery Seen today through sex slavery Intro The Problem of Slavery Dimensions 0 The NorthSouth economic divide from the 1820s forward 0 Theolo an ideolo the way that God was constructed by each side Pre1820 s Thomas Paine Early challenge to slavery 1775 Paine in the Pennsylvania Journal and Weekly Advertiser No rights of man for Africans o Talked about the wickedness of slave trade 0 Christians ought to know better than the have trade moral suasion 1787 Three Fifths Compromise A political balance between northern and southern states Black men count as 35 of a human AfricanAmerican Journalists Freedom s Journal NYC Samuel Cornish amp John R Russwurm 18271829 Late published under the title The Rights ofAll Cornish a copperhead re runaway slaves Cornish helped Garrison found a chapter of the NY AntiSlavery Society Movement Movement not the mainstream Intended reform not revolution Outsiderjournalism to change mainstream journalism 0 Public opinion came along with it Revolution comes anyways William Lloyd Garrison 18051879 Published the Liberator 18311865 0 1865 Civil War ends slaves are free Emancipation Proclamation o Circulated 2500 mostly African American An early AstroTurf campaign 0 1830 the American Colonization SocietyLiberia 0 Goal mainly to reduce the numbers of free blacks in the country and to help preserve the institution of slavery Know his passages Moral Suasion a Theme and Practice A persuasive rhetoric A valuebased comparative logic One of the hardest things to do is change someone39s belief system notjust their behavior Presents a fixed position Meant to overcome divisions Called for a unified moral crisis vs slavery ex Maria Stewart in the The Liberator18311833 quotAm I not a Woman and a Sister another example from Maria Stewart I was born in Hartford Connecticut in 1803 read this passage Fredrick Douglass Editor 18171895 The Ram s Horn 18471849 The North Star 18471851 Frederick Dougass Paper 1 8511864 0 Signal that it wasn t enough to just have his work reprinted by others White Abolitionists Newspapers The Instigator in Providence The Liberalist in New Orleans Elijah Lovejoy 18021837 0 Lynched any form of violent mob violence that kills someone Shot by a mob 0 St Louis ObserverAlton Observer o Became a martyr with his death in 1837 o Evangelical moral suasion The truth shall make you free Mainstream Journalism 1850s Widely circulated newspapers Whiteowned Usually proslavery Ex39s o The New York Herald 0 The Albany NY Sunday Dispatch Abolition enters the mainstream in 1850s 0 New York Tribune Horace Greely Circulated 200000 abolitionists 0 Chicago Tribune Joseph Medell Abolitionists Legal Signs of Change Key word in how abolitionists did their work morality Lecture 5 Understanding Fredrick Douglass Today s Questions What is interpretive historiography How does interpretive historiography help us to understand minority figures in journalism history What are the three stages ofjournalism history that Mindich suggests with the use of Frederick Douglass as an example 0 No Douglass o Mention of Douglass o Interpretive focus of Douglass that made him who he was Interpretive Historiography Interpreting in your own terms Outline Interpretive historial method 0 Key questions from Pauly 0 Key questions from Carey 0 What Mindich finds 0 Summary Concepts of interpretive history Answers to Pauly amp Carey re Douglass Trajectory Chart Summary Concepts Agency potential to act otherwise 0 Frederick Douglass ability to speak up against social norms Power Reform Timeline 18303 Jacksonian Age 18331837 peak of mob violence 0 NY Sun founded penny press 1835 Bennett launches the NY Herald penny press 1850s Douglass affiliate with political parties Four Challenges to Orthodoxy re Jacksonian America 1 Middle class didn t rise the rich got richer the poor got poorer and democracy was Iimed to white men 2 Jacksonian age was marked by vicious and bloody conflict 0 Rise of penny press 0 Peak mob violence 18331837 0 5O reporter riots 183435 0 NY Sun as an example 0 Partisan and abolitionist mobs o Lovejoy 1837 3 Violence caused by newspapermen 0 James Gordon Bennett 17951872 Publishes the New York Herald Canning someone was popular and horrible form of violence 4 Much violence directed at free blacks o Context for 1850s Douglass affiliated with political parties Free Soil 1852 1857 Dred Scott decision Frederick Douglass 18171895 Editor 0 Ram s Horn 1847 0 North Star 18471851 0 Frederick Dougass Paper 1 8511864 Pauly s questions Asked about the tensions between the renegade voices and the news Power disparities shown there Carey s questions Why did Douglas write 0 As an activist o Framed slavery in terms of moral suasion quotWhat void was he trying to fillquot How does Douglass s journalism compare with the journalism of others of his day What are the strategic silences in existing histories 0 Who got left out of the history and how can they be accounted for now Mindich finds Three stages ofjournalism history 1 Douglass ignored 2 Douglass included into the mainstream of 1830s political life the Jacksonian era compensatory history 3 Interpretative approach folkerts amp Teeter James Carey John Pauley Mindich s revisionisms Changes historical scholarship aboutjournalism Both Carey and Pauley advance he definition of journalism as The way that cultural meaning produced outside of the mainstream is synthesized in the mainstream Outside the research focus of mainstream historians Journalism as a social process and a site Process the interplay between renegade and mainstream voices Site The daily news page Trajectory Outsiders non white males and women Their goal for change it varied abolition was central in the 1830s1850s Mainstreamdominant ideological position 0 White malecenter suffrage being drunk and violent Outcome By the 1850s American mainstream had incorporated abolition
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