Week 5: Tammany Hall
Week 5: Tammany Hall GEOG:1090
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie Kreischer on Sunday March 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG:1090 at University of Iowa taught by C. E. Pavlik in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Globalization and Geographic Diversity in Geography at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 03/08/15
Chapter 4 Tammany Hall Overview NYC 1860s amp 1870s Certain members of the press departed from the pack to spotlight a massive fraud 0 10s of millions of dollars in public funds were diverted to enrich private individuals Tweed Ring 0 Dominated NYC poltiics 0 Among the most corrupt political machines in the nation s history 0 Stated that the influx of immigrants fleeing famine in Ireland threatened the very core of US life Undone by journalists who didn t fall into the corrupt trap Early example of watchdog journalism 0 New York Times 0 Unmasked the Tammany corrupted Demonstrated partisanship morality and objectivity Mainstream press always promoted a nativist strategy and demonoogy against enemies o All claiming to defend public interest Tweed Courthouse NYC Unnoticed by many tourists One of the most historically significant spots in the city Home of a political and cultural struggle and transformation of politics and journalism Background Construction began at the time of the Civil War Half a million dead Slavery ended Irish brought a culture of drinking 0 Poorest and most desperate stayed in NYC after immigration 0 Overpacked neighborhoods led to violence and lawlessness 0 Put a significant strain on municipal resources 0 Huge challenge for white Protestant establishment Irish were overwhelmineg Catholic Their devotion to the pope was incompatible with principles of republic nation Nativist Political Movement Nativists mainly white AngloSaxon Protestants Advanced policies that privileged the natives Portrayed immigrants as threatening American democracy and security Native American Party founded in NY 0 Founded even before the Irish immigrantwave o Argued for antiCatholic antiimmigrant policies 0 By 1854 party claimed more than a million members 0 Party exercised their power in eastern states 0 Slavery arguments blunted the force of the party 0 1856 party splintered many went to the Republican Party Democratic Party Strong power vlc in NY Tammany Hall empoyed a system of patronage 0 Public hobs and payouts were in exchange for votes 0 Led by William Magear Tweed Boss Tweed Magear Tweed Boss Tweed Most power in the city Tammany Hall s governing body Society of St Tammany o Held highest position here Headed New York Democratic Party Central Committee Directed New York City s Department of Public Works Sat on the New York County Board of Supervisors Nearly complete control of public purse 0 Able to channel money into projects of his choosing Construction supervisor of the New York County Court House Turned many Irish into Americans Tammany Hall Political center for the Irish immigrants Manipulated votes and stuffed ballot boxes Funneled public money into their pockets and to pay police and newspapers for their cooperation Thomas Nast Disgusted with Tammany Hall Hatred for Irish Cartoonist for Harper s Weekly Created the elephant as mascot for Republican Party and donkey for Democratic Pa y Immigrant form Germany protestant Identified with Republican Party also Nativist 0 Viewed Democrats as a threat to public order Images drawn see images 1 Violence between Irish and city police during St Patricks Day viewed Irish as a separate and inferior race 2 The Usual Irish Way of Doing Things presents a drunken Irish man sitting on gun powder and recklessly holding a torch behind him are absorb Irish demands Irish blamed for violence and disorder 3 American River Ganges invasion of crocodiles closer look is actually Catholics wearing Vatican robes and miters hostile invasion of Catholics Other cartoons 0 Arrogant abuse of power by the Tweed Ring 0 Occasional framed the Tweed scandal as representative of the basic difference between Republics and Democrats Never saw Grant s graft at Federal level New York Times Published for upperclass Didn t report on the Tammany Hall corruption until the death of James B Taylor editorial board no longer constrained Copies of city documents that contained evidence of the corruption turned in by former employee of the Tweed Ring James O Brien Detailed printed in the Times 0 Major step toward journalistic objectivity or the use of evidence in reporting the news 0 Rather than partisan nativist or moral position Tweed Ring Corruption Estimated between 45200 million Tweed left politically isolated and impotent 12 years in prison Lecture 8 Tammany Hall Outline From an advocacy press to the Fourth Estate Reform journalism comes of age in the Gilded Age 0 Working on the inside looking in Partisan limitations of the new morality Trajectory Timeline 1854 Native American Party forms 2 million members 1856 Native American Party becomes Republican Party 18581873 Tweed Ring Rules NYCDemocrats 18691871 Nast and Harper s Weekly crusade 0 Not formally affiliated with Republican party but mostly read by Republicans because of class and race 1870 New York Times joins crusade 0 James O Brien gave them proof that allowed them from changing from being a political biased newspaper to being objective 1871 Tweed wins reelection to state senate is indicated 1871 NY Times ran nearly a month of editorials based on evidence 1873 Sentenced to prison flees to Spain 1878 Tweed dies Changes within Mainstream Journalism From the status quo to the watchdog function of the Fourth Estate 0 Fourth Estate a public press as an auxiliary a watchdog to the government quotInside looking inquot In old days men had the rack Now they have the press Oscar Wilde Rack used for pulling people apart by arms and legs in medieval times Watchdog but Still Mainstream Practical aspects of watchdog role 0 No challenge to dominate values 0 Supported moral norms o Served as a check on officials o Journalists were still open to corruption Stopped when O Brien informer handed over the documents and James Taylor died management change Reform Journalism Comes of Age in the Gilded Age Thomas Nast o Originated political symbols Donkey elephant Santa Clause 0 Created cartoons against Tweed Tweed Well what are you going to do about it In response to being questioned about his corruption Turning point came in 18691871 as Harper s Weekly and the New York Times entered the scene 0 Will be analyzing a cartoon on the exam Catholic imagery monkey faces Simeon imagery visual grammar Other Newspapers Followed The Times Philadelphia Press Daily Advertiser Boston The Providence Daily Journal Others Did Not The New York Herold The New York Tribune 0 Said The Times was creating a scandal July 1871 Partisan Limitations of the Fourth Estates s New Morality The trump of free and fearless press Harper s Haper s Weekly leaning Republican The NY Times Republican The NY World Democratic The NY Herald Independent Trajectory Chart Outsiders The Tweed Ring Mainstream goal for change Adherence to moral norms Mainstream press s idealogical base Normative partisan institutional open to corruption 0 Not examples of advocacy journalism Lecture 9 Documentary on Irish in America The Long Journey 1 When did the potato famine start 0 1845 2 Where did the poorest Irishmen go 0 America New Orleans 3 What was the yellow fever 0 Mosquito born disease tropical 4 How did Irish compete with slaves 1 Needed work ports wasn t room for both of them and slaves Black moved up the ladder and Irish filled their place Black people had jobs first 2 How was that competition a radical grudge war Irish would stone the Black men violent towards the Black no one stood up for the Black 3 Who benefitted from that competition 1 Business consideration Irish were replaceable Black were investments Black at first received wages often and moved up the ladders However Irish were white men Later received positions on the dock New Orleans took them in 5 In 1853 which disease struck New Orleans 0 Yellow fever the strangers disease 0 Hundreds dying a day 0 Poor stayed in New Orleans anyone with money left 6 How did the city s newspapers and government react to the epidemic How many died 0 City refused to acknowledge it 0 15 Irish died Hundreds a day 0 10000 dead out of 100000 0 Said it was the immigrant not the disease 0 Said they should go to Boston a climate more like their own 7 What did unacclimated mean The strangers disease 0 Yellow fever 8 How were the Irish regarded in Boston by local Protestants o Looked comical were laughed at 0 Had to learn what it meant to be an American 0 Protestants gave to Irish famine and tried to act as a relief to them Changes in the middle of the 19th century Boston was being taken over by Irish Lost sympathy and thought of Irish as stubborn and ruining the city 9 Why were the Irish not accepted as Americans O O O 0 Too many coming over Yankee working class frightened by change Started taking jobs Threat to Democracy 10 How were they portrayed in the press 0 O Depicted as drunken dim witted simeon and a threat to Democracy itself as they were Catholics Scared political power was going to pass to Catholics 11 What was the nativist agenda vs the Irish by the KnowNothing Party Choke off foreign vote Deny political office to those not born in America Membership to parties was only for nativeborn Protestants Many elements of KKK Asked about their organization I know nothing One of the most successful third party movements Children lost from parents Come only hoping to survive Susceptible to disease Jobs were in the swamps mosquitos Black were respected more than the Irish by slaveowners Gave jobs were they risked malaria ditch cleaning to the Irish Unacclimated term used in the newspapers Poor voluntarily stayed poor to bring more Irish over First sense of being Irish was when they got to the US Irish identity
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