Week 6: Haymarket Riot
Week 6: Haymarket Riot GEOG:1090
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie Kreischer on Sunday March 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG:1090 at University of Iowa taught by C. E. Pavlik in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Globalization and Geographic Diversity in Geography at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 03/08/15
Lecture 10 The Haymarket Riot Albert Parsons 18481887 Lucy Parons 18531942 Political Development Confederate solider Texas Republican Chicago Socialist after he becomes aware of labor crisis Anarchist Nativist Conflict Between wonders of business and labor Angloowners vs German Czech immigrants Parson s critique of power 0 quotSelfgovernmentquot 0 quotNatural rights 0 quotNo majority rule 0 quotPerfect liberty Anarchy definitions State socialists believed that they should be in the position to choose their own leaders Anarchists no government at all 0 Parsons goal was not to change through reform he was revolutionary and wanted to overthrow the government Timeline 1848 Marx s Communist Manifesto 1873 Parons move to Chicago 1874 Parsons hires on with the Chicago Times 1875 Leaves Republican Party for the Social Democratic Party socialists 1877 Electoral effort Workingmen s Party 1877 State Socialism 1877 Electoral effort Workingmen s Party Parsons and Spies share a radicalizing experience about the state of labor Parsons Radicalization 1877 Joins Knights of Labor Addresses Market Street rally Threatened by city fathers Gets fired from Chicago Times Embraces anarchism The Parsons The Alarm The Alarm 18841888 Albert hanged in 1887 Lucy continues the paper 0 Advocacyjournalism revolutionary publication rather than reformbased like suffrage and abolition quotSource of new social ideasquot Anarchist period A result of being excluded from the mainstream pressfired by the Times in 1877 1886 Firm Radicalism Albert and Lucy Parsons affiliate with IWPA which Albert heads May 1 1886 Parsons and his family lead 80000 laborers in first annual May Day parade down Michigan Ave in strike for the weekend and the eighthour day May 3 police riot six killed by police May 3 Spies Poster Revenge August Spies 18551887 Witnessed the police killing of two workers at the May 3 riots Haymarket Riot May 4 1886 Someone through a bomb Trial and its Results 1886 July August Trial of eight anarchists took place No evidence of guilt or knowledge of bombing 7 of the 8 sentenced to death Henry Demarest Lloyd of Chicago Tribune defends the accused lL Gov James Oglesby commutes two Athird commits suicide in prison Nov 11 1887 four remaining hanged including Spies and Albert Parsons Advocacy Press The Alarm Albert and Lucy Parsons 18841888 Arbeiter Zeitung August Spies 18771931 No reform but revolution Added much to the labor movement but 0 Socialism became prominent through 1920s not anarchism Chapter 5 The Haymarket Riot Overview Mainstream press demonized labor as communistic Labor activities used their own newspapers to alert laborers to the cause of reform and need for revolution 0 Advocacy press Tensions between employers and workers Introduction The Making of a Radical Albert Parsons o 1973 Moved to Chicago from Texas 0 Radical journalist and advocate for Reconstruction 0 Married a former slave who was a political activist Interracial marriage 0 Republican gt Democratic 0 Worked at Chicago Times 0 Joined Knights of Labor powerful labor organization 0 Massive nationwide strike of railroad workers Addressed a crowd gathered on Market St on the rights of labor and urged them to change through democratic elections 0 Threatened by Chicago police for inciting revolution Responded by being even more radical o Abandoned socialism and became an anarchist Chicago was growing rapidly Living and working conditions were horrible Virtually no laws protected worker safety and child labor Problems lay with basic foundations of political and economic system The Communist Manifesto o 1848 0 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels 0 Goal was to overthrow capitalist societies Labor Capital and Anarchism Anarchists believed that political and legal avenues to change were hopeless because they were dominated by capitalists Parsons and allies wanted to overthrown the system through revolution Started The Alarm o Argued about the capital having the power to define mainstream opinion Controlled mainstream and used it to deride the labor movement 0 Radical Parsons became leader of the International Working People s Association Supported a campaign to limit working hours to 8 hours a day with George Engel and other Chicago anarchists Leisure time new concept Led 80000 workers on a march through Chicago s business district 0 Commenced a strike until their demands were met IrishAmerican ironworkers were striking and confronted by 400 Chicago police 2 killed August Spies o lmmigrated from Germany 0 Editor of ArbeiterZeitung o Witnessed shooting 0 Evidence that law and order was on the side of business owners Haymarket Square May 4 Rally began for supporters of Chicago labor movement Parsons spoke Bomb was thrown and 7 police officers were dead Demonizing the Left Hundreds of the city s labor leaders were imprisoned Mainstream press wanted revenge o Talked about the villainous Anarchists 0 Suggested sinister intent o Hostile tone 8 anarchist leaders were arrested and charged after the riot 0 78 were sentenced to death even without demonstration that they were guilty 0 Henry Demarest Lloyd began a campaign to reconsider the verdict Fired 0 Richard James Oglesbuge commuted two of the sentences to life imprisonment and one convict committed suicide in jail Nov 11 1887 four remaining anarchists were executed o Included August Spies and Albert Parsons 6 years later those imprisoned were offered pardons due to the bias trial Conclusion Used freedom of the press with The Alarm to get his point across Appealed to large class of immigrant workers Communicated to a large number of people Lucy Parsons remained leader of the anarchist movement Appeal against leftism developed during the response to the Haymarket Riot 0 Continued as a theme through politics