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Notes for Week of 3/2

by: Rachael Han

Notes for Week of 3/2 PSYC 1001 - General Psychology

Rachael Han
General Psychology

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General Psychology
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This 40 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachael Han on Sunday March 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1001 - General Psychology at George Washington University taught by Wetzell in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 03/08/15
PSYCHOLOGY Ch Intro 1 2 and 3 01132015 What is Psychology Psychology scientific study of behavior and mental processes 0 Behavior outward overt actions and reactions ie talking facial expressions and movement 0 Mental Processes internal covert activity in our minds ie thinking feeling and remembering Eclectic Approach use combination of perspectives Operational Definition trying to define X in a way that can be empirically tested Goals of Psychology Description Explanation Prediction and Control 0 Description What is happening Where to whom amp under what circumstances 0 Explanation Why is it happening 0 Prediction When will it happen again 0 Control How can it be changed Philosophy of Science 0 Determinism universe is governed by lawful causeandeffect relationships 0 Empiricism knowledge arises from sensory experiences Historv of Psychology 0 Relatively new field of sciences around 135 yrs old 0 Francis Cecil Sumner father of African American psychology Prior to World of Psychology Plato Aristotle and Descartes 0 Connection between soul and body Ernst Weber and Gustav Fechner 0 Early perception studies formed a basis for experimentation in psychology physiologists Hermann von Helmholtz interested in optics how does the eye see 0 Groundbreaking experiments in visual and auditory perception Wundt and Structuralism 0 Wilhelm Wundt 18321920 physiologist 0 Objective Introspection process of objectively examining and measuring one s own thoughts and mental activities 0 First psychology lab in Germany 1879 Analyze the content of one s mind through objective introspection Brain D Experience Thought and Emotion O Consciousness state of being aware of external events could be broken down into thoughts experiences emotions and other basic elements To inspect these nonphysical elements learn to think objectively about their own thoughts objective introspection Titchener and Structuralism in USA 0 Edward Titchener 1867 1927 Wundt s Student took ideas to Ithaca NY 0 Structuralism Structures of the mind every experience can be broken down into its individual emotions and sensations I idea died out in the early 1900 s 0 tell me about things that are yellow 0 Margaret Washburn Titchener s student 0 first woman to receive a PhD in psychology 1894 author of The Animal Mind William James and Functionalism 0 William James 1842 1910 Harvard Professor Wrote textbook Principles of Psychology 0 Functionalism how the mind allows people to function in the real world how people work play and adapt to their surroundings stream of thought vs elements of mind 0 Focused on consciousness to everyday life rather than just its analysis believed scientific study of consciousness itself was not yet possible heavily in uenced by Darwin s natural selection behavioral traits could aid in survival as well 0 Mary Whiton Calkins first woman to complete coursework for a doctorate at Harvard but rejected 0 Elements in functionalism is now only found in educational or industrialorganizational psychology Max Wertheimer and Gestalt Psychology 0 Max Wertheimer O Gestalt Psychology studying sensation and perception in an organized whole 0 Believed psychological events like perceivingsensing couldn t be broken down into smaller elements amp still be properly understood the whole is greater than the sum of its parts I Gestalt ideas currently part of cognitive psychology studies Sigmund Freud s Theory of Psychoanalysis I Sigmund Freud neurologist in Austria treated patients with nervous system disorders 0 Psychoanalysis theory and therapy based on Freud s ideas basis of much modern psychotherapy process in which a trained psychological professional helps a person gain insight into and change their behavior 0 Insight therapy treating fearanxiety Emphasis on unconscious amp early childhood 6 yrs proposed there s an unconscious mind into which we repress all threatening urgesdesires O Stated that phobia irrational fear is symptom of underlying repressed con ict and cannot be cured without years of psychoanalysis to uncover and understand repressed material Pavlov Watson and the Dawn of Behaviorism 0 Ivan Pavlov Russian physiologist O Re ex involuntary reaction could be caused to occur in response to a formerly unrelated stimulus Classical Conditioning Can salivate dogs wo giving them food I John Watson psychologist O Behaviorism science of behavior focus only on observable behavior something that could be directly seenmeasured based on classical conditioning ignored study of consciousness O Believed all behavior is learned and phobias are learned through process of conditioning I Watson amp Rayner I Little Albert experiments on babies highly unethical by teaching them to fear a white rat by making a loud scary noise every time the infant saw the rat I Mary Cover Jones grad student of Watson repeated study but added counterconditioning canceling out phobic reaction Little Peter Psychology Now Modern Perspectives 7 perspectives Psychodynamic Behavioral Humanistic Cognitive Sociocultural Biopsychological Evolutionary These are not competing theories 0 Psychodynamic Focus on unconscious early childhood development 0 Vestige of Freudian theory of unconscious mind and its in uence over conscious behavior and early childhood experiences less emphasis on sex and more emphasis on self 0 Behavioral BF Skinner became new leader about Watson by developing Operant Conditioning behavioral responses that are followed by pleasurable consequences are reinforced 0 Ex boy learns if he cries mother will get him candy 0 Humanistic third force reaction to both psychoanalytic theory and behaviorism people have free will freedom to choose their own destiny and strive for selfactualization Achievement of one s full potential most famous founders are Abraham Maslow 19071970 and Carl Rogers 19021987 0 Answer to deterministic nature of behaviorism 0 Cognitive focus on memory intelligence perception thought processes problem solving language and learning cognitive neuroscience includes study of physical workings of the brain and nervous system when engaged in memory thinking and other cognitive processes use MRI fMRI and PET 0 Prior in 1960 focuses on how people think remember store and use info became major force 0 Now focus on the cognitive focuses 0 Sociocultural combines social psychology study of groups social roles and rules of social actions and relationships and cultural psychology study of cultural norms values and expectations both about the effect that people have on one another individually or a larger group shows in crosscultural research contrastscomparisons of a behavior studied in 2 cultures 0 Bystander Effect presence of other people lessens chance that a person in trouble would receive help result of diffusion of responsibility Biopsychological Attributes human and animal behavior to biological events human and animal behavior is seen as a direct result of events in the body hormones heredity brain chemicals tumors and diseases topics include sleep emotions aggression sexual behavior learning and memory 0 Ex offers best explanation for schizophrenia 0 Evolutionary biological mental traits shared by all humans explains mental strategies and traits ie why we lie how attractiveness in uences mate selection why fear of snakes is common etc overlaps with biopsychology and sociocultural perspective mind is seen as a set of infoprocessing machines designed by same process of Darwin s natural selection 0 Evolutionary psychologists study evolutionary origins of human behavior Psychological Professionalilnd Areas of Specialization Counselor Therapist or Social Worker Masters Degree Psychologist PhD PsyD no medical training but a doctorate degree 0 Psychologists jobs 1 university amp 4yr colleges 2 selfemployed 3 private for profit 0 Subfields of Psychology 1 clinical 2 counseling 3 developmental 0 Psychologists who do research basic vs applied research 0 Basic research for sake of gaining scientific knowledge 0 Applied research aimed at answering realworld practical problems Psychiatrist MD medical degree and physical specializing in diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders 0 Psychiatric social worker trained in area of social work and usually possess master s degree focus more on environmental conditions that can impact mental disorders poverty stress drug abuse Psychology The Scienti c Methodology Scienti c Method system for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data 0 Five Steps 1 perceiving observing the question derived from goal of description 2 forming a hypothesis 3 testing hypothesis 4 drawing conclusions 5 reporting your results amp revisereplicate Scienti c Conclusions must be 0 Falsifiable never proven only supported and always subject to revision 0 Mechanistic clear cause and effect not supernatural 0 Parsimonious simplest is best Occam s Razor 0 Consistent must account for all empirical evidence 0 Reproducible same conditions produce same outcomes Critical Thinking making reasoned judgments about claims 0 1 No Such Thing as Truths There are very few truths that do not need to be subjected to testing 0 2 Evidence Varies in Quality All evidence is not equal in quality 0 3 Question Everything Just because someone is considered to be an authority or to have a lot of expertise does not make everything that person claims automatically true 0 4 Keep an Open Mind Critical thinking requires an open mind Descriptive Methods 0 Naturalistic Observation watch animalspeople behave in their normal environment O Advantage allows realistic picture of how behavior occurs 0 Disadvantage possibility of observer bias Blind Observers needed people who don t know research question and lack of control each setting is uniquedifferent O Observer Effect animalspeople who know they re being watched will not behave normally I Participant Observation researchers become participants in a group 0 Laboratory Observation 0 Disadvantage being an artificial situation that might result in artificial behavior 0 Case Studies one individual is studied in great detail 0 Advantage tremendous amount of detail it provides 0 Disadvantage can t really apply the results to other similar people I ex Phineas Gage who survived when a metal rod pierced his skull 0 Surveys ask series of questions from topic they re studying O Advantage ability to get at private info and large sample size 0 Disadvantage careful about the group of people they survey representative sample and people aren t always honest about answers 0 Representative Sample random sample of subjects from a larger population of subjects Correlations Finding Relationships 0 Correlation measure of the relationship between 2 variables 0 Correlation coef cient r represents direction of the relationships and its strength 0 Correlation does not prove causation The Experiment 0 Only an experiment can demonstrate causation 0 Deliberately manipulate the variable they think is causing some behavior while not changing others 0 Independent Variable the variable manipulated Dependent response of participants 0 Confounding Variables variables that interfere with each other and their possible effects on some other variable of interest I best way to fix this have experimental and control groups 0 Operational Definition specifically names the operations stepsprocedures that the experimenter must use to control or measure the variables in the experiment 0 Randomization is important 0 Hazards Placebo Effect and Experimenter Effect 0 Placebo Effect expectations and biases of participants in study can in uence behavior 0 Experimenter Effect expectations of experimenter are biased 0 Singleblind and Doubleblind studies amp Quasiexperimental 0 SingleBlind participants are blind to treatment they receive DoubleBlind researchers too 0 Quasiexperimental designs participants cannot be randomly assigned to conditions for some reason ie males vs females Ethics of Psychological Resem Guidelines for Doing Research with People 1 Rights and wellbeing of participants must be weighed against the study s values to science people first science second 2 Participants must be allowed to make an informal decision about participation 3 Deception must be justified 4 Participants may withdraw any time 5 Participants must be protected from risks or told explicably of risks 6 Investigators must debriet participants telling the true nature of the study and expectations of results 7 Data must remain confidential 8 If for any reason a study results in undesirable consequences for participants researcher is responsible for detecting and removing these consequences Why use animals instead of people 0 Biggest reason we can do things to animals that we can t do to people 0 Animals are easier to control they don t live as long so looking at longterm effects is easier have simple behavior that makes it easy to see changes 0 Animal Research needs to be approved by institutional Animal Care and Use Committee IACUC 0 The Three R s Replacement if we can not use animals you need to not to Reduction use fewest amount of animals and Refinement constantly reviewing procedures amp treatment Ethics in Psychological Research Historical Perspectives Nuremberg Code 1946 6 points to define legitimate medical research developed for Nazi war crimes trials Helsinki Declaration 1964 World Medical Association Ethical guide for biomedical research in humans Belmont Report 1978 response to the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment 19321972 National Research Act 1974 Neurons and Nerves Building a Network Neuroscience deals with anatomy and physiology of the nervous system and their links to behavior 0 3 Main Levels of Analysis Chemical molecular level Biological celllevel and Psychological 0 Biological NeurosciencePsychology branch of neuroscience that focuses on the biological bases of psychological processes behavior and learning 0 primary area associated with biological perspective in psychology Structure of the Neuron The Nervous System s Building Block 0 Neuron specialized cell in nervous system that receives and sends messages Within that system 0 Just like cells but don t have centrioles bc they can t divide and replicate lDendWe Demdriuc Tree I rmm Hz Emma Nucleus Mode 31 Hammer all Myelm Sheath 0 Dendrite treelike or branch receives messages from other cells 0 m the cell body contains the nucleus and keeps entire cell alive and functioning 0 m fiber attached to soma carries messages out to other cells 0 Axon Terminals synaptic nobs synaptic vesicles 0 responsible for communicating W other nerve cells 0 Myelin Sheath insulated and protects neuron speeds up neural message traveling down axon 0 m nerve fiber that conducts electrical impulses away from neuron s cell body and transmit info to different neurons muscles and glands 0 Node of Ranvier myelin sheath gaps gaps formed btwn myelin sheaths generated by different cells History and Theories Luigi Galvani ca 1700 Electrical stimulation I muscle contraction current on dead frog leg Golgi and Reticular Theorv late 1800 s Nervous system continuous fibers 0 No gaps not independent cells Electrical impulses conducted bidirectional O Camillo Golgi Fierce proponent of reticular theory developed silvernitrate staining Caial and Neuron Theorv Nerves are made of autonomous individual cells 0 Neurotransmission is unidirectional O Santiago Ramon y Cajal Proponent of neuron theory Refined Golgi s stain I Observed that Nerve fibers grows out of cell bodies Cutting a nerve fiber causes retrograde degeneration and there are gaps between terminals 1906 Nobel Prize in Medicine Golgi and Cajal won 0 Golgi refused to acknowledge Cajal and used acceptance speech to criticize neuron theory 0 In Golgi s defense no conclusive evidence for neuron theory until l920l950 s it was hotly debated until then Soup vs Spark Debate Is synaptic transmission chemical or electrical Chemical 0 gtkOtto Loewi 1920s Frog heart experiment with electrical stimulator on vagus nerve interneuronal transmission is chemical Nobel Prize 1936 Glial Cells specialized cells of the nervous system Involved in formation of myelin Mounting immune responses in the brain holds neurons in place removing waste get nutrients to the neurons removing waste and cleaning up remains of dead neurons provide insulation for neurons synchronizing activity of the billions of neurons that constitute the nervous system possibly involved in certain psychological disorders schizophrenia or major depressive disorder Myelin layer of fatty substances created by 2 types of glial cells oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells wraps around the shaft of neurons to form an insulating and protective sheath 0 Oligodendrocytes produce myelin in Central Nervous System for neurons in brair spinal cord I Tracts bundles of myelincoated axons traveling together as cables in central nervous system 0 Schwann cells produce myelin in Peripheral Nervous System for neurons of the body I Nerves bundles of myelincoated axons traveling together as cables in peripheral nervous system I Unigue feature can serve as tunnel where damaged nerve fibers can reconnect and repaid themselves Neuron s Electrochemical System Resting and Action Potentials Neuron at rest electrically charged m semiliquid solution with charged particles inside and outside the cell Resting Potential negative charge inside compared to outside 70 mV due to distribution of ions diffusion 0 During an action potential positive ions first ow into the axon There s little or no net chance in the distribution of negative ions Action Potential electrochemical potential of neuron rapidly ips from negative to positive then back due to ion conductance when sodium ions enter inside mostly positive outside mostly negative Diffusion ions moving from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration Electrostatic pressure relative electrical charges when ions are at rest All or none principle AP is always the same amplitude strength either neuron is firing at full strength or none at all Threshold potential potential at which an AP will be triggered typically between 40 and 55 mV Hyperpolarization rebound phase of the AP when the neuron becomes more negatively charged than resting potential Absolute refractorv period repolarization phase of the AP between peak amplitude and crossing threshold during which another AP cannot be fired Relative refractorv period phase from crossing threshold through hyperpolarization and returning to RP Another AP can be fired but required more energy than usual Propagation of the Action Period 223311 Saltatorv Conduction Saltatory to leap AP appears to leap from node to node but is actually propagated within axon BRAIN Initiative Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies Program started by Obama to answer questions about brain through developing new technologies The Synapse The Synapse uidfilled space between axon terminal dendrite of another neuron O Synaptic vesicles little saclife structures contain chemicals suspended in neurotransmitters O Neurotransmitters inside neuron and they transmit messages Instead of an electrical charge the presynaptic membrane contain neurotransmitters molecules and the postsynaptic membrane contain ion channels that have receptor sites 0 Receptor sites proteins that allow only particular molecules of a certain shape to fit into it Neuron Communication Excitatorv Svnapse synapse at which a neurotransmitter increases the likelihood of the receiving cell firing generating EPSP Excitatory postsynaptic potential Inhibitory Synapse synapse at which a neurotransmitter decreases the likelihood of the receiving cell firing generating IPSP Inhibitory postsynaptic potential The Axon Hillock connects the cell body soma to the axon Mgior Neurotrgnsmitters and Their Functions Glutamate Gluz gtkthere s a lotgt lt involved in learning memory formation nervous system development and synaptic plasticity Excess causes over activation and neuronal damage Gammaaminobutyric acid GABA gtkthere s a lotgt lt involved in sleep and inhibits movement 0 Can help calm anxiety effect of alcohol is to enhance effect of GABA Endorphins involved in pain relief type of neuropeptide O Bind to receptors that open the ion channels on the axon Dopamine DA involved in control of movement and sensations of pleasure 0 Found in brain too little Parkinson s vs too much schizophrenia Acetvlcholine ACh involved in arousal attention memory and controls muscle contractions 0 found at synapses between neurons and muscle cells stimulates skeletal muscles to contract but slows contractions in heart muscle found in hippocampus forming new memories low levels of ACh linked to Alzheimer s Serotonin 5HT involved in mood sleep and appetite 0 Found in lower part of brain with excitatory or inhibitory effect low levels depression Norepinephrine NE involved in arousal and mood Clearing the Synapse Enzymatic Degradation ACh vs Reuptake All Others 0 Reuptake sucks up neurotransmitters back into synaptic vesicles so next stimulation can occur 0 Enzymatic Degradation enzyme specifically designed to break apart ACh clears synaptic gap quickly The Nervous System network of cells that carries info to and from all part of the body 0 Central Nervous System CNS brain and spinal cord both which compose of neurons and glial cells 0 Peripheral Nervous System PNStransmitsinfo tofrom CNS all nervesneurons not in CNS rquotyqu 7 r or if 39 5 gm 1N39 39 7 l7 5 7nd 3 my 1 a r a H Lr hr al u as 4 tall1 71 lgurgrr g l r r pHlg x in minim The brain and spinal mrcl 39Il39rransmir ts information to anti ler illi In an ratrral nervous system l l l l 7 alliesll Eislwil liniarprats and Pathway 39 39 stares i n FarmaE in n rannartir rg iha Autarnat39itally Earrias san sary and sends nirdars brain and tlha regulates glands ir rfnrrnatian ta musrl asi glands paripharal internal organs and annuals and nrgans nervous system and bland sassals rnnnarna nrt pupil dilatian all the skeletal digasrtian and rnusrllas bland pressure l r s l 2Isrfg rrjrg gjj lzqn lm a m l l afar 133Elli it infms Maintains handy TlliJ nations Prepares The body to under n ralllinarry condition 395 rear andl expand saves energy a nan gig in iir as n39l stress 0 The Central Nervous System The Spinal Chord long bundle of neurons that serve 2 vital functions for nervous system 0 outer section of myelinated axonsnerves that carry messages from body to brain and vice versa and inner section of cell bodies of neurons separated by glial cells that are responsible for re exes The Spinal Re ex Arc controlled by spinal cord reactions wo sending message to brain 3 types of neurons 0 Afferent sensory neurons carry messages from the senses to spinal cord carry input to the brain 0 Efferent motor somatic neurons carry messages from spinal cord to muscles and glands carry impulses away from brain efferent exit 0 Interneurons link afferent neurons to motor neurons Neuroplasticity and Stem Cells 0 Neuroplasticity ability within the brain to constantly change both the structure and function of many cells in response to experience or trauma 0 Stem cells special cells found in all the tissues for the body capable of becoming other cell types when those cells need to be replaced due to damage or wear and tear omnipotent unlimited power The Peripheral Nervous System Somatic and Automatic Nervous Systems 0 Somatic nerves that control voluntary muscles made up of the sensory and motor pathways 0 Sensory pathway comprises all the nerves carrying messages from the senses to the central nervous system those nerves containing afferent neurons 0 Motor pathway all of the nerves carrying messages from central nervous system to voluntary skeletal muscles of body 0 Autonomic nerves that control the involuntary muscles organs and glands 0 Parasvmpathetic Rest and digest located at topbottom of spinal column get body to return to normal functioning after stressful situation ends allows body to restore all energy it burned also responsible for most ordinary daytoday bodily functioning regular heartbeat normal breathing and digestion 39EX slows heartbreathing constricts pupils reactivates digestionexcretion 0 S m athetic Fi ht or i ht primarily located on middle of spinal column get body ready to deal with stress 39EX pupils get bigger to let more lightinfo in heart pumps fasterharder digestion system shut down saliva dries up The Endocrine System 0 Endocrine glands have no ducts and secrete their chemicals hormones directly into bloodstream 0 Hormones affect behavior and emotions by stimulating muscles organs or other glands I Oxytocin hormone involved with reproduction and parental behavior pregnancy Pinealglahd i W f a L V r dd w P i tuitary gland rdquot J Parathyroid gland5 ET Thyroid gland 39 F39ar39hcu39ea s l a l1 i ll Adrenal I i glands A Testes 0 Pineal Gland SleepWake cycle 0 Melatonin helps track day length and season 0 Pituitary Gland master gland controls all other endocrine glands SaltWater Levels 0 growth hormone oxytocin etc 0 Parathyroid Gland Calcium Levels 0 Thyroid Gland Metabolic Rate and growth 0 Pancreas Gland Sugar Levels too little diabetes too much hypoglycemia 0 Adrenals Gland 2 glands FightFlight Stress Response and Steroids 0 Adrenal medulla when people are under stress releases hormones 0 Adrenal cortex 30 different hormones called corticoids steroids regulating salt intake initiate and control stress reactions and provide source of seX hormones 0 Gonads Glands Sexual differentiation maturation and activity ovaries and testes The Brain 0 Why difficult to study brain 100 Billion Neurons Perpetual Flux Constant change 0 Epigenetics changes that can change the genomes of the individual without changing the genetic code right hemispheres quotDmmlll39 Ulmm llldlmllu l 7 a thwgm pmm art m the rerehram ml w 1W r u V I that relays ihferrnatien fresh sensseraI erepens te 39 39 theteretn sl certes Hy ne thelen ms Part er the terehrain l that regulates the amenr ut e f fear thirst quot 1 sexual elrwe and JQQFESSIGH we feel Pituitary land Regulates ether ehelecr ne glamds Cerelhellum Part en the hindbrain that centrels balance and maintains musele i x seertarina tirtlm Fens Part ml the llilntlhrein that relays messages between the rerehelltssn and the terten Hippecampus Plays a rule in eur leer n ling rne innr and ability te eernpere sensers39 infern39latieh te esrsertetiler rs a t Reticular termathen it system at nerves runrtlng truth the hirsdhrain nmd thnmjgh the midbrain to the Medulla see 7 Part ef the h39lnellhralr39l where nerves rcerehml terriers EDMtE E llllmg ress Efrem ne sirle Ci39l the heathi te 39 nmusal and atterstirsn the epgmsite side ef the brain 39 0 Corpus Callosum connects left and right hemispheres of the brain 0 Cerebral Cortex controls complex thought processes 0 Thalamus sensory info part of forebrain that relays info from sensory organs to cerebral cortex 0 Greatest relay station of the brain 0 Cerebellum controls balance and maintains muscle coordination 0 m relays messages between the cerebellum and the cortex 0 Reticular formation a system of nerves running from the hindbrain and through the midbrain to the cerebral cortex controlling arousal attention allows to pay attention to certain stimuli 0 Medulla where nerves cross from one side of body to opposite side of brain 0 Hippocampus plays role in learning memory and ability to compare sensory info to expectations 0 Often linked to Alzheimer s disease 0 Pituitary gland regulates other endocrine glands 0 Hypothalamus regulates amount of fear thirst sexual drive aggression Peeking Inside of the Brain 0 Lesioning studies damaging areas of study in brain 0 Deep lesioning insertion of a thin insulated wire into the brain through which an electrical current is sent that destroys the brain cells at the tip of the wire 0 Brain stimulation less harmful way temporarily disrupt or enhance normal functioning of specific brain areas through electrical stimulation of the brain ESB 0 Invasive techniques DBS electrodes placed in specific deepbrain areas and electrode wires are routed to a pacemakerlike device impulse generator surgically implanted under collarbone that sends impulses to implanted electrodes to stimulate specific brain areas 39Used in treatment for Parkinson s seizure chronic pain effects of moodmemory O Noninvasive techniques rTMS tDCS I rTMS magnetic pulses applied to cortex using special copper wire coils administrated in a repeated fashion Lw scalp electrodes pass very low amplitude direct current to the brain to change excitability of cortical neurons below electrodes 39These techniques used studies of cognition memory retrieval and decision making PTSD depression and stroke effects 0 Mapping Structure 0 CT Computed Tomography series of Xrays of the brain 39Shows stroke damage tumors injuries abnormal brain structure metal in body LE Magnetic Resonance Imaging machine generating powerful magnetic field to align hydrogen atoms in brain tissues then radio pulses used to make atoms spin at particular frequencydirection 39Shows estimated concentration of specific chemicalsneurotransmitters DTI brain s 2 color regions gray and white matter 0 Mapping Function 0 EEG electrical record electrical activity of cortex with electroencephalograph 39Indicates stages of sleep seizures or presence of tumors 0 PET radioactive sugar injected with radioactive glucose to detect brain activity using colors to indicate different levels of brain activity 0 SPECT blood ow nuclear imaging test with special camera and radioactive substance to create 3D pics to show how blood ows to heart or what areas of brain are moreless active 0 fMRI blood ow analyzes blood oxygen levels to look at brain functions The Hindbrain 0 m larger swelling above medulla bridge between brain s lowerupper parts crossover of motor nerves carrying messages from brain to body and coordinate movements of leftright sides of body 0 In uences sleep dreaming arousal 0 Medulla first swelling part want to never damage crossover of sensory nerves coming from body s leftright sides and that sensory info from left side of body goes to right side of brain amp vice versa 0 Lifesustaining functions like breathing swallowing heart rate 0 Cerebellum base of skull 0 controls and coordinates involuntary rapid fine motor movement 0 coordinates voluntary movements that have to happen in rapid succession walking skating dancing playing musical instrument movements of speech 0 Reticular Formation gRF network of neurons running through middle of medullapons 0 General Attention alertness and arousal The Limbic System Tlhalarrius Part of the torebrain that relays information from aemory organs to the cerebral cortex Hygootlhalamue Part of the toreljraio that regulates the amount of fear thirst aeitual drive erile aggreaaioo we feel Cingulate miter Primary cortical coriigooh mat of the limhit ayateim iotrolltrecl iiri emotiooal and cogoiti39ae proteaair lg Aimygdaila Influences our rttotieatioo emotional tohtrol tear reepohae and interpretations of nonverbal emotional eapreaaiohs i Hlippocampua Filay39s a role in our earning memory and ability to compare SENEGW information to eapectotiona 0 Limbic System involved in emotions motivation memory and learning 0 Thalamus part of forebrain that relays info from sensory organs to cerebral cortex inner chamber hearing sight touch or taste 0 Olfactory Bulbs sense of smell signals from neurons in sinus cavity go directly here I Sense of smell only sense that doesn t have to first pass through thalamus 0 Hypothalamus part of forebrain regulating the amount felt of fear thirst sexual drive and aggression 0 Hippocampus plays role in learning memory and ability to compare sensory info to expectations instrumental in forming lonterm declarative memories Alzheimer s Disease lack of ACh 0 Amygdala the almond in uences motivation emotional control fear response and interpretations of nonverbal emotional expressions play vital role in forming emotional memories 0 Cingulate Cortex primary cortical component of limbic system pay attention 4 regions involved in emotional cognitive and autonomic processing ex selective attention written word recognition working memory schizophrenia bipolar disorder The Cortex 0 rind or outer covering wrinkled outermost covering of the brain made up of tightly packed neurons Motor ning 50111610 SE H S Ul39fy39 EUFIEX msoria tion cortex ni39 39 i A 39 72 a T 39 7 Association u V cortex n P a I Emma39s area Vi wal We rriirke39s area 1 Frontal Lobe contain prefrontal cortex motor cortex mirror neurons fire when an animal performs an action or observe that same action performed by another 0 higher functions planning personality language motor control complex decisions 0 Phineas Gage damaged this lack of emotional control I Perseveration making same movement over and over 0 2 Occipital Lobe primary visual cortices 0 3 Parietal Lobe contains somatosensorv cortex 0 info from skininternal body receptors for touch temperature and body position 0 4 Temporal Lobe auditory cortex and auditory association area language comprehension 0 Association cortex areas within each lobe of the cortex made up of neurons responsible for the coordination and interpretation of sensory info coming into brain and stored memories images and knowledge as well as higher mental processing 0 Broca s area area in left frontal lobe of most people devoted to production of speech allows person to speak smoothly and uently I Broca s Aphasia inability to useunderstand either written or spoken language 0 Wernick s area area in left temporal lobe of most people involved in understanding the meaning of words I Wernicke s aphasia able to speak uentlycorrectly but use wrong words Two Cortical Hemispheres Cerebral Hemispheres 0 Connected by corpus callosum thick band of neural fibers axons allowing hemispheres to communicate each hemisphere divided into 4 sections 0 Corpus callosum sometimes severed to reduce seizures 0 Left Hemisphere controls right hand language left frontal math calculations logical thought processes analysis of detail reading 0 Right Hemisphere controls left hand nonverbal process info globally the whole visualspatial perception musicartistic processing emotional thought and recognition pattern and facial recognition SplitBrain Research 0 Spatial Neglect person with damage to right parietal and occipital lobes of cortex will ignore everything in left visual field 0 Left visual field Right Hemisphere vs Right visual field Left Hemisphere 0 Patients shown images in the left visual field cannot describe them but do sense them Sensation Sensation I Perception through transduction O Stimulus I Sensory Receptors I Transduction I Neural Impulses I Perception Sensation activation of receptors in various sense organs detection of physical stimuli from our environment and is made possible by activation of specific receptor cells Transduction conversion of energy from one from to another 0 stimulus light sound smell etc energy converted to nerve impulse Sensory receptors special forms of neurons transduces physical info into electrical info 0 eyes ears nose etc Weber s Law of J ND just noticeable difference smallest different between 2 stimuli that s detectable 50 of the time whatever the different between stimuli might be it is always constant Absolute Threshold by Fechner least energy for correct stimulus detection 50 of time 0 Subliminal stimuli stimuli just below level of conscious awareness I Just strong enough to activate sensory receptors but not strong enough to be consciously aware of them James Vicary 1957 subliminal advertising never supported bc Vicary admitted that he never truly conducted a study 0 Signal Detection Theory Fechner how individuals respond to important stimuli Habituation way the brain deals with unchanging info from environment brain stops attending to constant unchanging stimuli cognitive 0 Ex people don t hear air conditioning until it s out off Sensorv adaptation sensory receptors less responsive ignores to constant stimuli biological 0 EX first smell odor of garbage can but after a while smell goes away 0 EX when you eat food tastes strong at first but taste later fades away Microsaccades tiny eye movements that prevent adaptation to visual stimuli The Science of Seeing Psychological Properties of Light 0 Brightness amplitude of light waves higher wave brighter light 0 m length of the light waves longer wave reds vs shorter wave blues 0 Saturation Purity of perceived color 0 highly saturated wavelengths all the same I less saturated varying wavelengths Structure of the Eye 0 light passes through ganglion and bipolar cells I reaches to stimulate rods and cones I nerve impulses from the rods and cones travel along a nerve pathway to the brain Pupil iris opening that changes size depending on the amount pt 7quot V Lens light in the e rWI renr ner it Changes shape te bring phjierts into teams Iris Its 39rritistles tuvritrel the size at the pupil lFtetinia J Eentaiins quot photoreceptor Cells titqueens humer Clear liquid that V nourishes the 39V eye Fe uea Eeh tr al area of reri ha greatest dEl lElty pl photoreceth rs Optic nerve Send5 irisual a interimaitien to the brain Cornea Bends lig ht we ires so the iirnage can he focused on the retina Blind spat optic dist Bland Where the pptic nerve WIFEDME humor 7 7 V leaves the eye there Jelllylr ke lilqlllllfl that V9559 I V h t V T I riptiriishes and gives shape quot i are m P 039 DF ECEP W I tells here Le the eye 0 Cornea bends light waves so the image can be focused on retina clear membrane with fixed curvature 0 PRK and LASIK remove small portions of cornea to change curvature 0 Aside from lens damage to cornea can affect eye s ability to focus 0 Agueous Humor clear liquid that nourishes the eye between cornea and iris 0 E muscles control the size of pupil 0 Pupil iris hole opening that changes size depending on amount of environment s light 0 m changes shape to bring objects into focus hardens as we age thus causing presbyopia 0 Visual Accommodation lens change its shape from thick to thin focus on closefar away 0 Vitreous Humor jellylike liquid that nourishes and gives shape to eye 0 Blood Vessels 0 Retina light sensitive area at back of eye with 3 layers ganglion cells bipolar cells and rodscones 0 contains photoreceptor cells first celltypes to receive light energy and responsible for its transduction 0 m central area of retina greatest density of photoreceptors m not rods greatest visual acuity 0 Blind Spot Optic Disc where optic nerve leaves eye no photoreceptor cells 0 Ex if you stare with one eye at one spot long enough any object that slowly crosses visual field may at one point disappear Optic Nerve sends visual info to the brain 0 Dark adaptation recovery of the eye s sensitivity to visual stimuli in darkness after exposure to bright lights takes up to an hour 0 Light adaptation recovery of the eye s sensitivity to visual stimuli in light after exposure to darkness Takes only a few minutes Detail of the retina Myopia vs Hyperopia vs Presbyopia Pathway of nerve impulses Photoreceptor cells I bipolar cells I ganglion cells I optic nerve r E Ganglion cells if In ght r39 V Opitic disc Optic nerve Blind spoil f bers going quot 3911 to the brain Direction of nerve innptdses Bipolar neuronls quot Photoreceptor cells 39 Rods Cones Retina light sensitive area at back of eye with 3 layers ganglion cells bipolar cells and rodscones 0 contains photoreceptor cells Rods and Cones photoreceptors that respond to light s wavelengths 0 M sensitive to changes in brightness not color amp need little light to work well periphery 0 Cones day vision sensitive to changes in color need more light to work well fovea Bipolar Neurons specialized neurons in retina that receive signals from rods and cones and have only one dendrite and one axon Ganglion Cells its axons form optic nerve that receive signals from bipolar neurons 0 gtkaxons eventually form the optic nerve Blind Spot Optic Disc where optic nerve leaves eye no photoreceptor cells Optic Nerve sends visual info to the brain 3 lb FarSighted eye faquot Flea I39Sl glared eye Myopia nearsighted focal point in front of retina Hyperopia farsighted focal point behind retina Presbyopia natural loss of lens exibility due to aging Perception of Color Trichromatic theorv three types of cones red green blue 0 Firing rate of cones and color eX if red and green cones fire at fast enough rate see yellow 0 Doesn t account for afterimages visual sensations that persist after the initial stimulus has been removed I explained by opponent process theory Opponent Process Theorv four primary colors of red green blue and yellow with cones arranged in pairs 0 Opponents of one another RedGreen BlueYellow 0 If pair is strongly stimulated other member is inhibited and cannot be working Color blindness color deficiency is more appropriate 0 Caused by defective cones in the retina most cases two conetypes still work 0 The Ishihara Color Test to test color blindness 0 3 Types monochrome no cones shades of gray or dichromatic one cone that does not work properly combo of 2 conescolors 0 More common in males because for Females she must inherit 2 recessive genes of XX but for men only needs to inherit one recessive gene from mother s X chromosome bc Y is smaller Through the Eyes to the Brain 0 Visual Cortex I Mangocellular Pathwav Where and Pavocellular Pathwav What Perception 0 Perception method by which sensations are organized and interpreted Perceptual Constancy 0 Size Constancy interpret an object as always being same size regardless of distance 0 Shape Constancy interpret shape of object as constant even when it changes in retina 0 Brightness Constancy perceive apparent brightness of object even when light conditions change Gestalt Principals principles are based on the idea that people have a natural tendency to force patterns onto whatever they see 0 FigureGround tendency to perceive object or figures as existing on some background 0 Example Camou age 0 Proximity tendency to perceive objects that are close to one another XXX 0 Similarity tendency to perceive things that look similar as being part of the same group ie uniforms 0 Closure tendency to complete figures that are incomplete or nonexistent 0 Continuity tendency to perceive things as simply as possible with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex brokenup pattern 0 Contiguity tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time as being related usually the first is assumed to cause the second 0 Common Re ion Not one of the ori inal rinci als added later tendency to perceive objects that are in a common area or region as being in a group Depth Perception 0 Depth Perception the ability to perceive the world in 3 dimensions monocular binocular Monocular pictorial depth cues depth cues that can be perceived by one eye alone Interposition Overlap if one object blocks another object people assume that the blocked object is behind the first one and further away 0 Linear perspective lines that are actually parallel to seem to converge on each other 0 Relative size objects that people expect to be of a certain size appear to be small so assumed further away 0 Texture gradient closer things very distinctly textures but further away smallerfiner texture 0 Aerial perspective object haziness increases with distance due to atmospheric interference 0 Motion parallax closer objects appear to move more quicker than objects more further away 0 Accommodation lt closer objects require accommodations of the lens to be in focus the strength of which is tracked by the brain as another depth cue 0 not a pictorial cue happens inside the eye muscular cue Binocular depth cues cues for perceiving depth based on both eyes 0 Convergence position of eyes relative to one another rotation of the 2 eyes to focus on a single object 0 Binocular disparity location of image on both retinas relative to one another Visual Illusions Illusion perception that does not correspond to reality 0 Help us understand how our vision system works 0 Arise from two factors eye physiology sensation and misinterpretation by the brain perception The MullerLver Illusion two lines identical but one looks longer than the other more in people in Western culture l l t l lgl Illusions of Motion sometimes we perceive an object as moving when it is actually still 0 Phi Phenomenon sense of something moving around the dots 0 Beta Movement motions assuming movement but dots just turning on an off 0 Autokinetic effect a single small light in a darkened room will appear to drift no cues to indicate it is not moving 0 Stroboscopic motion rapid series of still images appear to move Factors In uencing Perception Bottomup processing analyze smaller features first then build to a complete perception unfamiliar situations Topdown processing use preexisting knowledge to organize individual features into a unified whole Perceptual set expectancy tendency to perceive objectssituations in a particular way bc prior experiences What is Consciousness Consciousness subjective awareness of everything going on inside and outside of you 0 Waking state thoughts feelings sensations are clear and organized alert 0 Altered state shift in quality or pattern of mental activity thoughts fuzzydisorganized 0 EX daydreaming being hypnotized achieving a meditative state under the in uence of drugs Altered States 0 Mediation procedure involving a shift in consciousness to a highly focused aware state in control of mental processes scientific study is new 0 MindfulnessBased Stress Reduction MBSR therapeutic programs that teach and promote mindfulness to improve wellbeing and reduce negative experiences 0 D ja vu distinct feeling of having seen or experienced a situation that s impossible or unlikely to have previously occurred Disorders of Consciousness 0 m complete loss of consciousness 0 Persistent Vegetative State PVS minimal to no consciousness may develop sleep cycles 0 Minimally Conscious State MCS 2 ability to show some behavior suggesting consciousness even if inconsistently m Sleep state of consciousness occurring in cycles of several stages 13 of lives spent sleeping 0 Sleep cycles usually defined by the electroencephalogram EEG O Electroencephalogram EEG device that measures brain waves Biological and Circadian Rhythms 0 Biological ththms patterns that are governed by biological processes called clocks and cycle over days weeks months or years 0 Circadian Rhythms sleepwake cycle internally driven biological rhythms that cycle about every 24 hrs affecting physiological and behavioral processes controlled by hypothalamus O Suprachiasmatic Nucleus SCN internal clock that tells people when to wake up and when to fall asleep in the hypothalamus also controls body temperature lower temp sleepier I special cells in the retina relay messages about light in the environment to the SCN I SCN communicates these signals to the pineal gland I the pineal gland releases the hormone melatonin which peaks in levels at nighttime and is reduced during wakefulness melatonin sometimes used to treat jet lag 0 If we don t get light cues our daily rhythms remain but gradually begin to shift 0 2 timekeeping sources endogenous biological clocks with 25hrs cycle and light acts as a zeitgeber or time giver that resets the clocks daily The Stages of Sleep PreSleep 0 Beta waves smallerfaster person is wide awake and mentally active 0 Alpha waves largerslower person is relaxed or lightly sleeping 0 Theta Waves even largerslower replaces alpha waves NonREM 0 Sleep spans from lighter stages to a much deeper more restful kind of sleep 0 N1 RampK Stage 1 light sleep theta waves breathing blood pressure and heart rate all decrease O Hypnagogic hallucinations hypnic jerk falling sensation 0 If awakened prob won t believe they were sleeping 0 N2 RampK Stage 2 sleep spindles brief bursts of activity lasting only a second or two K complexes Theta waves still predominate brain waves continue to slow temperaturebreathingheart rate decrease 0 N3 RampK Stage 3 and 4 deepest stage of sleep delta waves growth hormones released difficult to wake a person at this stage REM 0 Lightest stage of sleep Quickening brain waves inhibited body movement rapid eye movement REM also called paradoxical sleep 90 of dreaming and hypnopompic hallucinations Psychologically active type of sleep 0 REM rebound experiencing greatly increased amounts of REM sleep the next night after being deprived of sleep or using sleeping pillsdepressant drugs 0 50 of infant s sleep is typically spent in REM Why do we sleep All vertebrates sleep even those that would seem to be better off without it only warmblooded animals exhibit REM birdsmammals sleep appears to be essential for survival 0 Adaptive theory animals evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators by sleeping when predators are most active 0 Restoration theorv sleep replenishes chemicals and repairs the body necessary for physical health Sleep and Learning research demonstrates that sleep helps us learn 0 REM sleep helps consolidate nondeclarative memory skills 0 Slow wave sleep helps consolidate declarative memory facts Necessity of Sleep 0 Sleep deprivation sleep loss that impairs concentration and results in irritability 0 Symptoms trembling hands inattention staring off into space droopy eyelids discomfort 0 Sleep also important for forming memories 0 Microsleeps sleep lasting only a few seconds Sleep Deprivation One night edginess irritability poor concentration next day Multiple nights often depression difficulties in learning and attending slowed reaction times More than 4 days of severe deprivation can hear voices or see things 0 Sleep deprivation results in cognitive distortions concentration perceptual distortions hallucinations 0 A central function of sleep appears to be allowing the brain to rest 0 In the lab sleepdeprived subjects sleep longer when allowed Do not make up all of the sleep lost make up more REM stages than all others 0 Sleep deprivation in lab animals results in death cause unknown 0 Fatal familial insomnia FFI rare genetically inherited neurological disorder 0 Symptoms profound insomnia slowwave sleep disappears deficits in attentior memory dreamlike confused state loss of autonomic and endocrine control increase body temp O Eventually results in death cause unknown Sleep Disorders Insomnia inability to get to sleep stay asleep or get a good quality of sleep 0 Onset maintenance terminal primary and secondary insomnia 0 Steps to help people sleep Go to bed only when you re sleepy if you lie in bed for 20 mins do a light activity don t do anything in your bed but sleep don t try too hard to get to sleep don t look at clock or calculate how much sleep you aren t getting keep to a regular schedule don t take sleeping pills drink alcohol or other types of drugs to slow down the nervous system do not allow you to get any REM or lighter stages of sleep Nightmares and REM Behavior Disorder 0 Nightmares bad dreams arousing feelings of horror helplessness extreme sorrow etc 0 Only occur during REM 0 REM Behavior Disorder rare disorder in which the brain mechanisms that normally inhibit the voluntary muscles fail allowing the person to thrash around and even get up and act out nightmares Night Terrors attacks of extreme fear that the victim has while sound asleep 0 Only occur during N3 may sit up scream run around the room or ail feel unable to breath 0 Difference from nightmares nightmares are usually vividly remembered immediately upon waking and will actually be able to wake and immediately talk about the bad dream Sleepwalking amp Related Disorders 0 Restless legs syndrome a persistent feeling of discomfort in the legs and the urge to continuously shift them into different positions 0 Somnambulism Sleepwalking 2 disorder that involves wandering and performing other activities while asleep occurs in 20 of the population and partially due to heredity Disorders and Problems with Sleep 0 Sleep Apnea disorder characterized by the temporary inability to breathe during sleep 525 of adults in the US suffer from apnea 0 Narcolepsy disorder in which a person experiences extreme daytime sleepiness and even sleep attacks sleep seizure may slip suddenly into REM sleep during the day 0 Cataplexy sudden loss of muscle tone 0 Sleep State Misperception SSM condition in which a person underestimates her amount of sleep on a regular basis 0 Positive Sleep Misperception when a person regularly overestimates their sleep Dreams Theories of Dreaming Psvchoanalvtic Approach Freud 0 The Interpretation of Dreams 1900 unconscious expression of wish fulfillment no scientific evidnce O Manifest Content of a dream is the actual dream itself 0 Latent Content true meaning of a dream was hidden and only expressed in symbols ActivationSynthesis Hypothesis Hobson amp McCarlev 0 Suggest that dreams arise from random bursts of excitatory brain activity from the stem found through brainimaging techniques like PET scan 0 ActivationInformationMode AIM HypothesisModel information that s accessed during waking hours can have an in uence on the synthesis of dreams when the brain is making up a dream to explain its own activation it uses meaningful bits and pieces of the person s experiences from the previouslast few days rather than just random items The Effects of Hypnosis Hypnosis state of consciousness in which a person is especially susceptible to suggestion 0 produce amnesia reduce pain alter sensory impressions help people relax serve as a useful adjunct to therapies direct at the above 0 Cannot give increased strength reliably enhance memory regress people to an earlier agelife 4 Steps in Hypnotic Induction 0 Person told to focus on what s being said 0 Person told to relax and feel tired 0 Person told to accept suggestions 0 Person told to use vivid imagination Theories of Hypnosis 0 vanosis as Dissociation The Hidden Observer worked on immediate consciousness while a part of that person s mind hidden observer is aware of everything going on 0 SocialCognitive Theorv hypnotized people not in altered state but are playing situational role expected of them The In uence of Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive drugs drugs that alter behavior thinking perception andor memory History of Modern Pharmacology Isolation of morphine 1804 principle alkaloid of opium Alkaloids alkaline constituents of plant extracts typically amines thus ines Merck 1927 0 Led to isolation of other alkaloids strychnine 1817 caffeine 1820 nicotine 1828 Hypodermic Needles 1857 American Civil War 18611865 Patent Medicines in 1859 35M US Sales I 1904 74M US Sales US Legal Trends Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 Accurate labeling established FDA no substances were made illegal Harrison Narcotics Act 1914 International Opium Conference of 1911 Pharmacists and physicians must register 1 record narcotics inventories 18th Amendment 1920 prohibition gt05 alcohol 110th of typical beer was illegal repealed 1933 Mariiuana Tax Act 1937 taxed imports and sales prompted by state legislation immigration fears O Leary V The United States 1969 violated 5th amendment and struck down Controlled Substances Act 1970 replaced all previous legislation established 5 schedules of controlled substances Schedules I IV established DEA in effect to this day Observations on drug use and the law 0 Drug laws often inconsistent With medicalscientific evidence I Alcohol and nicotine remain legal yet marijuana remains illegal I Often research on certain compounds is needlessly restricted 0 Drug laws often kneej er reactions to increases in use andor perceived dangers I Often covertly in uenced by prejudiceparanoia resulting in unbalanced enforcement challenges to drug laws must counter these unrealistic perceptions 0 Drug laws do not prevent drug use I Most controlled substances can be acquired if desired restrictior increased enforcement leads to alternate sources preventative education may be more effective less costly W What is addiction Not a simple question early views focused on physical dependence but many substances don t induce classical withdrawal and there are clear psychological components to addiction Addiction is a chronologically relapsing disorder characterized by O Compulsion to seek and take a drug loss of control in limiting intake emergence of a negative emotional state when access to the drug is prevented thsical dependence body adapts to chronic drug use 0 Withdrawal symptoms when deprived of drug 0 Drug Tolerance larger and larger doses of drug are needed to achieve same initial effects 0 Negative reinforcement tendency to continue a behavior that leads to the removal of or escape from unpleasant circumstances or sensations very powerful motivating factor Contingencymanagement therapy operant conditioning strategy patients earn vouchers for negative drug tests Cognitivebehavior interventions work to change the way people think about the stresses in their lives and react to those stressors working toward more effective coping without resorting to drugs Psvchological dependence compulsion to seek or take the drug belief that drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological wellbeing 0 Positive reinforcement tendency of a behavior to strengthen when followed by pleasurable consequences DSMIVTR 0 Substance use 0 Substance abuse I Adds maladaptive elements 0 Substance dependence ie addiction I Adds physiological elements tolerance and withdrawal DSM V O Combines the above into Substance Use Disorder SUD I Degrees of severity Drug use 1 Drug abuse 1 Addition no such thing as a bad drug Models of Addiction 0 Gateway Model observed inunique to adolescents start out by using legal substances ie alcohol tobacco but later use progresses to marijuana I A small percentage then move to other illicit substances cocaine heroin meth etc 0 Homeostasis Stable physiological equilibrium with normal set point 0 Allostasis unstable compensated equilibrium with pathological set point quot bhlimutl A I Rs39Lapiir UJpx E I 39J3939 Allostatic model of drug abuse cyclic pattern of use with 3 main components U l Anticipation I preoccupation 2 intoxication bingeing 3 Withdrawal I negative affect D May or not progress I increased use larger amounts enhanced toleranceWithdrawal recruitment of antireward brain mechanisms drug becomes negative reinforcers 1th i E mm imxljtiljl39lTJf39I39IEqj39 LIN H L931 i y mu LichI m lrunce 39lquoti Iuliiw Hm 39Lr I ln imlmicnliun 4 Jungquot rlivf Imlapra L llL EILIPL I39ldt39EIE U39 I imlrmndat lrail slain LlL151 1pLLIix uquot Empa inlmicslinvn 1quot iliquotli l39 l Hrwawd I k39 kurrlhlir 71 7 Null14 cr 39a391H L39jH39L IJH rming 39 quotli i139irnc39cquot Pr tl39ili39 illtl cll1 lii l mu 6 O Hi39u lml JII lurk Mugg llii I L ll lig39li39t Hallucino ens Hi her and Hi her Commonly Abused Drugs HJ FEiH l h sl El EU I595 EFFEETE V EHEHIEIE iL PEFiFiEIETE T39EELEMHEE Eamulanu t till39uE Euph giamcmam wrung1 Immune dopaminE i 39ntnrm elnps High arrpl39rizmmlmr csmge Inmmd I39nhilfhnm39is innr npingwh ne m39hzy quu kly Marijuana Eupimtin Marsharadiiquot Etirnulaies ta nzbin id Hmlzupza LuisaJ married Miscr experiences recep mm Il 39a39nllf paranoia Hallr iquotaegmsl5 Hajsir dinmaim e1 mum limaaae wrotenu ar wirw D lit6 InaH Fa qbinJDH T arasz F39EFEE39EIZLEIJ enrichma Hick glutarrsm magiii Elmii E mn lm Fur F l39lit Farinarlri filming Finlay Inmnm Qu lta i uij1ii1 i i li 39F grii izl gi rjmjngui gyl39am Harm3n Irmalam ing 35 high qu3i Emma blr39bftur39iit MWEIHEEELIEEHEIEiDI I Increase Ermaf m Inps High El litlli i f il39l39 i nalquot iilu39re lilr Elkeha EilFll39Ciii39ln39I ml39ialinlnIl Human E39IAZIIIEE39IEH rimu Emitpa Hademm m hlgh email a lizhirim s arfEJIm arlmnlnms nimm39phin grailJ3 C3939Il EJUPCITHHE wtvpmw Types of Drugs Depressants drugs that decrease the functioning of the immune system 0 Includes tranquilizers alcohol narcotics morphine heroin 0 Sedatives O Barbiturates major tranquilizers that have a sedative effect can shut down brain stem regions reduce REM Sleep 0 Benzodiazepines relatively mind depressant effect lower anxiety and reduce stress increases effects of GABA 39 XanaX Valium Halcion Atvian Librium 0 Alcohol most commonly used drug worldwide 0 Acceptable but regulated in most cultures I more prevalent in West in uence of cultural norms men gt women 0 Targets GABA receptors also opioid and dopamine receptors inhibits frontal lobe Negative consequences assault pregnancy drinking and driving 0 College Drinking college students drink more than noncollege peers believe that their peers drink more than they actually do I 1825 alcoholrelated student deathsyear 599000 alcoholrelated injuries 400000 studentsyear report unsafe seX while intoxicated 10000 too drunk to remember 25 report academic consequences from drinking Stimulants category of drugs that speed up the nervous system typically enhancing wakefulness and O alertness 0 Include cocaine methylphenidate Ritalin amphetamines bath salts syn Cathinone ecstasy MDMA Molly MDA nicotine caffeine 0 Amphetamines stimulants synthesized in labs Methedrine Benzedrine etc 0 Cocaine natural drug in coca plant leaves produces feelings of euphoria energy power and pleasure and deadens painsuppresses the appetite O Nicotine relatively mild but toxic stimulant producing slight rush or sense of arousal as it raises blood pressure and accelerates the heart 0 Stimulants like methylphenidate Ritalin affect the same areas of the brain as cocaine albeit with different speed and intensity Hallucinogens substances that produce dissociation andor perceptual distortion 0 Include LSD Psilocybin Ketamine Special K and Vitamin K DMT Cannabinoids 0 Marijuana THC binds to cannabinoid CB receptors 0 CB System believed to be involved in neurodevelopment provides negative signal for neuron migration 0 Reduction of physical pain probable antiin ammatory effects similar to acetaminophen OpiatesOpioids 0 Include poppy plants morphine heroin fentanyl hydrooxycodone Treatment is challenging Methadone Suboxone Prescription Drug Abuse Second to marijuana most commonly abused drug decreasing prescription drug abuse challenge Le arning relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience 1 lial E li 39h i l i mm ll ilviiidh Ii quotam itquot u niulxrmarmm m hiErn illslama IFFH WEEHim rigtum Cmmm i mini l Fi E vrmrleda Ili39uiull 5 law hr Liming lh mute1m m quotunlm EmiliaSAW Eh nning ui i imriwmxmia Eii39zi i 39ti rid u vw y w Li mm lIJHEl hls iiil li lni light his Hath MEI tramrim 39i i Aria Mingquot Him 5W5 Gm 11 RICE ii i h Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov 1849 1936 Russian physiologist 0 Discovered classical conditioning re exes stimuli amp responses Elements of Classical Conditioning Neutral stimulus NS benign stimulus which elicits no response the bell prior to conditioning Unconditioned stimulus US the stimulus that naturally elicits the UR the food Unconditioned response UR natural automatic or re exive responsive to the US salivation in response to food Conditioned stimulus CS the NS once it elicits the CR after conditioning the bell after conditioning Conditioned response CR the UR when it is elicited by the CS after conditioning salivation in response to the bell Other Elements of Classical Conditioning Generalization tendancy of stimuli that are similar to the CS to elicit the CR Discrimination tendancy of stimuli that are similar to the CS to decreasingly elicit the CR as they become less similar and are never paired with US Extinction the tendency of the CS to gradually stop eliciting the CR following repeated presentation of the CS without the US Spontaneous recovery full reestablishment of the CR following a single CSUS pairing after it has been extinguished HighOrder Conditioning 0 Occurs when a strong CS is paired with a new NS NS causing NS to become a second CS CS 0 After conditioning conditioned stimulus I conditioned stimulus conditioned response Conditioned Emotional Responses 0 Conditioned emotional response emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli little albert phobia anxiety depression 0 Vicarious conditioning conditioning as a result of watching someone else response to a stimuli Other conditioned responses 0 Conditioned taste avoidance development of an avoidance response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by aversive effects often occurring after only one association 0 Biological preparedness idea that animals have a tendency to learn certain associations with only one or few pairings due to the survival value of the learning 0 Equipotentiality hypothesis idea that all natural phenomena have equal potential to serve as a CS proposed by Pavlov Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning voluntary behavior learned through consequences 0 Thorndike s Law of Effect responses followed by pleasurable consequences are repeated 0 BF Skinner 19041990 studied observable measurable behavior 0 Operant voluntary behavior learning depends on consequences Reinforcement 0 Reinforcement any consequence that makes a response more likely 0 Positive addition of a pleasurable stimulus I Getting a gold star for good behavior in school 0 Negative removal escape or avoidance of aversion unpleasant stimulus I EX avoiding a ticket by stopping at a red light 0 Primary reinforcers reinforcer meeting a basic biological need or drive 0 Secondary reinforcers reinforcing via pairing with a primary reinforcer Punishment 0 Punishment any consequence that makes a response less likely 0 Positive application addition of unpleasant stimulus I Getting a spanking for disobeying O Negative removal removal of pleasurable stimulus I Losing a privilege such as going outwith friends 0 Problems fear and anxiety lying avoidance modeling of aggression 0 More Effective immediate consistent paired With reinforcement for correct behaviors Schedules of Reinforcement 0 Fixed Ratio FR same number of desired responses required 0 Rapid response rate With short pauses 0 Variable Ratio VR number of responses required varies for each event 0 Rapid rate Without pauses slot machine 0 Fixed Interval FI always same time before reinforcement opportunity 0 Long pauses after reinforcement dentist 0 Variable Interval VI reinforcement possibilities after varying amount of time 0 Slower steady rate Without pauses fishing Stimulus Control 0 Discriminative Stimulus cue to specific response for reinforcement 0 EX ashing light on a police car door that says open Other Concepts in Operant Conditioning 0 Shaping small steps effective reinforcement heavy early reinforcement reinforce less and less incorporate harder steps 0 Extinction 0 Generalization and Discrimination 0 Spontaneous Recovery 0 Biological constraints idea that animals ca only be trained to perform behaviors related to their evolutionary history 0 Instinctive drift animal s conditioned behavior reverts to genetic patterns Behavior Modification Behavior modification use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about the desired changes in behavior Behavior Modification Techniques 0 Token economy type of behavior modification in which desired behavior is rewarded with tokens 0 Applied behavior analysis modern term for a form of functional analysis and behavior modification that uses a variety of behavioral techniques to mold a desired behavior or response 0 Biofeedback controlling involuntary responses ie blood pressure via biological feedback 0 Neurofeedback modifying behavior via brainscanning and feedback about brain activity Cognitive Learning Theory 0 Early days of learning focus on behavior I l950 s60 s inc focus on mental events cognition 0 Edward Tolman early cognitive scientist Insight Learning 0 Kohler found evidence of insight sudden perception of the relationships among elements of a problem in chimpanzees mrned Helplessness Learned helplessness tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation bc of a history of repeated failures to do so 0 Event when escape becomes readily available Seligman found parallels with depression Observational Learning Observational Learning learning new behavior by watching a model behave 0 Bandura s Bobo Doll Experiment 2 conditions Aggressive and NonAggressive Model 0 Viewers of aggression played more aggressively model s behavior was imitate even absence of reward 0 4 elements of Observational Learning 0 Attention learner must be paying attention to the model 0 Memory must be able to retain the memory of the action 0 Imitation must be capable of reproducing the action 0 Desire must have the desire to perform the action My MariamE rutEru1e nl 4E 39ul39a39tlrifllgl V ramm i I lE i dlrm I 3 Liquot a a V V in in 3H LQII IEEIIEEJIJI39EI39I Mm c i in 39gul39u qarlr n7 V 7 1 In 7 V ErQ39THI 39Eil39r EH r quotWWW in rmm n I l MungLT Imp I1 7 n I um um a E 39539 FW39IIIMquot1 1 Eli F r quotJ i 39I 39l39 39I39 r ll irlriil39x lu riflr FLI nruji39iajaJrgdjaj libl i jl i1 Fiji1 unicl i39un l 39iiHHHII I39 11 irli rml mn II lF39lrllli39Ilin IEIi39EEf iilhmuqh Fivflgitlid s i 10 It1l i lvr1fIII I Ianm1 url39lmrl39mlia39lnl1urniv ma IEI Hamlin Illlquot balll llltu39li 1L raider Memory system that senses organizes alters stores and retrieves information Theoretical Models of Memory InformationProcessing Model assume the processing of info for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory in a series of 3 stages ie serial processing Types of Memory sensory shortterm memory longterm memory 0 Sensory 0 Main process pattern recognition 5 m visual 1 12 seconds Echoic auditory 4 seconds 0 Capacity large but not unlimited Duration of sensory codes very brief 0 Selective Attention ability to focus only one stimulus from along all sensory input 0 Shortterm Memory STM memory system in which info is held for brief periods of time while being used 0 Main process encoding primarily in auditory form but visual too 0 Capacity limited capacity I Duration of sensory codes 12 30 seconds wo rehearsal I Chunking combining into meaningful units more info can be held in STM I Maintenance rehearsal repeating info over and over in your head using WM to maintain STM i Visuopatial Sketchpad visual WM Phonological Loop Auditory WM 0 Working Memory WM an active system that processes the info in STM BaddelyHitch Model of WM l Central Executive V In 3 I Phonologim Visuospa i Episodic Loop Sketchpad Buffer Shouthenna Language lt11 7 ran MW 4 r 1 EPlS L i C 59m a it i 5 Iniemm 0 LongTerm Memory LTM all info is placed to be kept more or less permanently 0 Capacity seemingly unlimited Duration of sensory codes relatively permanent 0 Elaborative Rehearsal a method of transferring info from STM into LTM by making that info meaningful in some way 0 Types of LTM I Nondeclarative memory implicit procedural U Motor skills habits classically conditioned re exes I Declarative memory explicit U Semantic memory facts general knowledge U Episodic memory events experienced by a person Processes of Memory Encoding Consolidation Retrieval Memory processes move info between memory m Encoding converting environmental and mental info into ST WM Consolidation transfer of STM to LTM Retrieval pulling info from LTM Parallel distributed processing PDP Model memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections Levelsof processing assumes info that s more deeply processed or processed according to its meaning rather than just the sound or physical characteristics of the wordwords will be remembered more efficiently and for a longer period of time 0 shallow What does it look like I sound like I mean deep Retrieval of LongTerm Memories Retrieval cue a stimulus for remembering the more cues stored w piece of info the easier the retrieval Statedependent learning memories formed during a particular physiological or psychological state will be easier to remember while in a similar state Retrieval processes 0 Recall retrieval of memories with littleno retrieval cues ie filling in blanks on application form 0 Serial position effect Primary Effect Recency Effect 0 Recognition retrieval of memories that match present sensory cues ie seeing someone you know and retrieving their name 0 False positive occurs when one thinks that one recognizes someone or something but in fact does not EX Father Bernard Pagano falsely identified for a series of robberies that were eventually confessed by another man 0 Eyewitness Testimony Loftus s protestor study what people see and hear after the fact can change their memories eyewitness testimony not always reliable O Flashbulb Memories automatic encoding due to unexpected highly emotional event The Reconstructive Nature of LongTerm Memory Retrieval Constructive Memory Processes 0 Constructive processing retrievalcontent of memory altered by newer info 0 Hindsight bias false belief that you knew the outcome of an event 39 Knowledge of the event s true outcome is incorporated into your memories of the event itself Memory Retrieval Problems 0 Misinformation effect misleading info presented after event can affect memory accuracy for event 0 Loftus tra 39c accident study 0 Falsememory syndrome creation of inaccurate or false memories via others suggestions 0 Often while person is under hypnosis Loftus has demonstrated that hypnosis isn t necessary only visual cues Forgetting 0 Failure to properly store info for future use Memory Trace Decay Theory 0 Memory Trace physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed 0 Decay loss of memory due to the passage of time during which the memory trace isn t used Interference Theory 0 Proactive Interference info learned earlier interferes with info learned later 0 Retroactive interference info learned later interferes with info learned earlier Neuroscience of Memory LongTerm Potentiation LTP stable strengthening of synaptic connections due to increased activity connections due to increased activity believed to underlie all memory and learning Brain areas Associated with Types of Memory 0 Shortterm memories frOontal temporal and parietal lobes 0 Nondeclarative memories basal ganglia amp cerebellum and possibly brain stem central gray 0 Semantic and episodic memories association cortices ie areas that aren t involved in sensorimotor 0 The Hippocampus plays vital role in formation of new declarative memories Amnesia Organic Amnesia 0 Retrograde loss of memory from the point of some injury of trauma backwards or loss of memory for the past 0 Anterograde when memory for anything new becomes impossible although old memories may still be retrieval Infantile Amnesia inability to retrieve memories from much before age 3 0 May be due to l implicit nature of infant memory ie relatively few experiences with which to label or categories memories making them less salient 2 mechanisms for LTP are focused on development and ont available for memory formation


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Refund Policy


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