Introduction to Biological Anthropology
Introduction to Biological Anthropology
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Date Created: 04/18/14
ANTH 270 Chapter Six Vocabulary 0 U 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Primates Members of the mammalian order Primates which includes lemurs lorises tarsiers monkeys apes and humans Anthropoids Members of the primate infraorder Anthropoidea which includes monkeys apes and humans Morphology The form of anatomical structures can also refer to the entire organism Omnivorous Having a diet consisting of many food types such as plant materials meat and insects Diurnal Active during the day Olfaction The sense of smell Nocturnal Active during the night Stereoscopic Vision The condition whereby visual images are to varying degrees superimposed This provides for depth perception or viewing the external environment in three dimensions Stereoscopic vision is partly a function of structures in the brain Binocular Vision Vision characterized by overlapping visual fields provided by forward facing eyes Binocular vision is essential to depth perception Hemisphere One of the two halves of the cerebrum which are connected by a dense mass of fibers The cerebrum is the large rounded outer portion of the brain Neocortex The more recently evolved portions of the cortex outer layer of the brain that are involved with higher mental function and composed of areas that integrate incoming information from different sensory organs Sensory Modalities Different forms of sensation touch pain pressure heat cold vision taste hearing and smell Arboreal Tree living adapted to life in the trees Adaptive Niche An organism39s entire way of life where it lives what it eats how it gets food how it avoids predators and so on Dental Formula Numerical device that indicates the number of each type of tooth in each side of the upper and lower jaws Cusps The bumps on the chewing surface of premolars and molars Brachiation Arm swinging a form of locomotion used by some primates Brachiation involves hanging from a branch and moving by alternately swinging from one arm to another Strepsirhini The primate suborder that includes lemurs and lorises Haplorhini The primate suborder that includes tarsiers monkeys apes and humans Rhinarium The moist hairless pad at the end of the nose seen in most mammalian species The rhinarium enhances an animal39s ability to smell Cercopithecidae The taxonomic family that includes Old World monkeys Cercopithecines Common name for the members of the subfamily of Old World 23 24 25 26 27 28 monkeys that includes baboons macaques and guenons Colobines Common name for members of the subfamily of Old World monkeys that includes the African colobus monkeys and Asian langurs Hominoids Members of the primate superfamily which includes apes and humans Territorial Pertaining to the protection of all or a part of the area occupied by an animal or group of animals Territorial behaviors range from scent marking to out right attacks on intruders Frugivorous Having a diet composed primarily of fruits Natal Group The group in which animals are born and raised Intelligence Mental capacity ability to learn reason or comprehend and interpret information facts relationships and meanings the capacity to solve problems whether through the application of previously acquired knowledge or through insight ANTH 270 Chapter Seven Vocabulary Behavior Anything organisms do that involves action in response to internal or external stimuli The response of an individual group or species to its environment Such responses may or may not be deliberate and they aren39t necessarily the results of conscious decision making Ecological Pertaining to the relationships between organisms and all aspects of their environment temperature predators nonpredators vegetation availability of food and water types of food disease organisms parasites etc Behavioral Ecology The study of the evolution of behavior emphasizing the role of ecological factors as agents of natural selection Behaviors and behavioral patterns have been favored because they increase the reproductive fitness of individuals they are adaptive in specific environmental contexts Social Structure The composition size and sex ratio of a group of animals The social structure of a species is in part the result of natural selection in a specific habitat and it guides individual interactions and social relationships Metabolism The chemical processes within cells that break down nutrients and release energy for the body to use When nutrients are broken down into their component parts such as amino acids energy is released and made available for the cells to use Matrilines Groups that consist of a female her daughters and their offspring Matrilines are common among macaques Life History Traits Characteristics and developmental stages that in uence reproductive rates Examples include longevity age at sexual maturity length of time between births etc Dominance Hierarchies Systems of social organization wherein individuals within a group are ranked relative to one another Higher ranking animals have greater access to preferred food items and mating partners than low ranking individuals Dominance hierarchies are sometimes called quotpecking ordersquot Communication Any act that conveys information to another individual Frequently the result of communication is a change in the behavior of the recipient Communication may not be deliberate but may instead be the result of involuntary processes or a secondary consequence of an intentional action 10 Autonomic Pertaining to physiological responses not under voluntary control An 11 example in chimpanzees would be the erection of body hair during excitement Blushing is a human example Both convey information regarding emotional states but neither is deliberate and communication isn39t intended Grooming Picking through fur to remove dirt parasites and other materials that may be present Social grooming is common among primates and reinforced social relationships 12 Displays Sequences of repetitious behaviors that serve to communicate emotional states 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Nonhuman primate displays are most frequently associated with reproductive or agonistic behavior examples include chest slapping in gorillas or in male chimpanzees dragging and waving branches while charging and threatening other animals Language A standardized system of arbitrary vocal sounds written symbols and gestures used in communication Affiliative Behaviors Amicable associations between individuals Affiliative behaviors such as grooming reinforce social bonds and promote group cohesion Reproductive Strategies Behaviors or behavioral complexes that have been favored by natural selection to increase individual reproductive success The behaviors need not be deliberate and they often vary considerably between males and females KSelected Pertaining to K selection an adaptive strategy whereby individuals produce relatively few offspring in whom they invest increased parental care Although only a few infants are born chances of survival are increased for each one because of parental investments of time and energy Birds elephants and canids wolves coyotes and dogs are examples of K selected nonprimate species RSelected Pertaining to r selection a reproductive strategy that emphasizes relatively large numbers of offspring and reduced parental care compared with K selected species K selection and r selection are relative terms for example mice are r selected compared with primates but k selected compared to insects Sexual Selection A type of natural selection that operates on only one sex within a species It39s the result of competition for mates and it can lead to sexual dimorphism with regard to one or more traits Polygynous Pertaining to polygyny A mating system in which a male mates with more than one female This is the most common mating pattern found in mammals including most primates Polyandry A mating system wherein a female continuously associates with more than one male usually two or three with whom she mates Among nonhuman primates polyandry is see only in marmosets and tamarins It also occurs in a few human societies Encephalization The proportional size of the brain relative to some estimate of overall body size such as weight More precisely the term refers to increases in brain size beyond what would be expected given the body size of a particular species Anthropocentric Viewing nonhuman organisms in terms of human experience and capabilities Emphasizing the importance of humans over everything else Core Area The portion of a home range containing the highest concentration and most reliable supplies of food and water The core area is defended Territories Portions of an individual39s or group39s home range that are actively defended against intrusion especially by members of the same species Prosocial Behaviors Actions that benefit other individuals and or a society as a whole Loosely speaking the term quotprosocialquot is the opposite of quotantisocialquot 26 Altruism Actions that bene t another individual but at some potential risk or cost to oneself 27 Empathy The ability to identify with the feelings and thoughts of another individual ANTH 270 Lecture Four Primate Evolution 1 Fossils Provide direct evidence of organism existing 21 b Replaced by inorganic compounds c Several dating methods used but must know exact location d Stratigraphy i Original horizontality all rocks originally deposited horizontally Lateral Continuity sedimentary rocks are laterally continuous over large areas PE Superposition layers usurp each other as they are formed iv Cross cutting Relations anything cutting across a stratum must have been formed after the stratum v Law of lnclusions rock fragments must be older than the rock containing the fragments e Chronometric Dating Techniques i Carbon P Potassium Argon f Fossilization i Taphonomy act of moving from the biosphere living world to the lithosphere rocks 1 Death 2 Decay 3 Remains MUST be buried to be fossilized a ood waters carry sediment bury remains and protect them from trampling scattering starts the process of fossilization g Age of Fossils i Relative dating something is older or younger than something else but not by how much 1 Stratigraphy Absolute dating chronometric dating gives an estimate in actual years 1 KAr ArAr C14 Combination of relative and absolute 1 paleomagnetism biostratigraphy h Geologic Epochs i Paleocene 6555 MY Amillion years ago d Eocene 5533 MYA Oligocene 3323 MY A iv Miocene 23 53 MY A V Pliocene 53 25 MYA Pleistocene 25 01 MY A Vi Vii 2 Earliest Primates b Holocene 10 KYA thousand years ago present Early IMammlaI Radiation I Edentata liEI39lIliEiquotl l39EI392E2 2Il ifl39 ar Iuarl iIIiaii ai Flhnlidlzitai n1i3I ngIii 33 Glllres El1ir39upileir39a ii3i 39l39l i Clteuclumai UR I CEI l39IIi IIquotlIIquotE I u a1 lmai K lI39f39H ii T Iiil I N I1nuI1guauslta5lt I I1 as 1I I Cundyllarthlrai 1 Aitiudaclyl llgs IDesmor t3rlia N 4 El1 Ibl39yPthl3iEildi M I Lag m irpha III EliIl39l39lE I39ar39ea micl pill aI Flndleritia I1 miie iiu1Ilquot39E 3IZ ILvIilIl39r l f uau7uI39ei 5 iuuIzzilgiuiiiiras I3e3 t I lII39EIn r SiEli deE iEIl39 JilI I39391Il l39l SlquotlIIl39iI quotI S I Pl39il1Ell BS IjI rmuI uI quot39 lrI nIJI B i 393 l39IilEI5 nilI39iiI n39uS Iii iiaf1im3 ell J m Elcanmzlermtia IIIII Be 391iI39339 39i 395a m Dlgrmoupt gr39a IIECIILJliIuS cur 1 l39ing I3r39l39miI39jn I llnsectlvosra iiiilI ll E39i i rmI is I 1LIl iE39 iiiIIis el39 33 iilllll Ll ii If iii Izlevel i139I le gstnsalls Sl39neJ l39IIllII I39IJ39I li3l II1LE3Eii nar39uquoteE eI If Cletacsea I w1Ii325 IlCIi3ii39i39Il 3 FIIICrquotIhCIIlErEEI I Tulaullizder at 391IiIlquotquot tli I Perl sodacwla Ifl1uau1quotcers lquotli Ilr395 I I1iIiuxuueI oe I Hyrrac iclea I l39lJ quot1 i35 nzlasier a Siirenial 39Iquotuu a1taaa I39lIl lIiZI IiIl 9a ucw39u in m Prnlaascldea E39llI393Jl39I Il39l39lE Im1Inr39l39 ztl393 mi3ttlrn Ert I a 3955 Frirnuaies Slrnapairlnimess I I I Iar39i5 ui4lIec I I I II I I mum illemurin uel Ilarises lLuur39iiglluel TnIrsiEr r39F lernur lAquotiiquot IIl iI39IlIQI393luiIirllE il ogre iaubanlbnlidnell 3 incl IF139EiTii39l39ilE t 3 Archaic Primates suborder Plesiadapiformes Range approx 7030 MY A most from 6050 b Distribution North America Europe Asia 21 C Body Size 20 g 5 kg Trsiiv i39wtl ua a Q a gpuc iiinsvand luin i ebiclueji Ggnlqgcns GiiIm39pm1idtlu2 Tr5iiluiEi Eli5v11n H ii i 39i39Ii39nEtisi IEe I3 IquotvIquotIm3911u 5i2rl5 and TlIquotl39Cll39i39 5 l39Cu ili I ridHi i Ei A Tcmcirmmii Chart cal Livii g lial Worlcll Iquotu IvunlicEy395i pesvwinI Humans New World Monkeys V Z Cehctagglilimeciziii eeri Hl lminiziide Eebainicleui Giblmn IHIrclrii r39 i Ie39I L Great in pes quot39I 395Z 139h I iIH Ilquot GMIIIQ Himiniii5 HraminidueI Hmaler and Spider monkeys and kin I lteiilev I I I Did 39W rlId l i Ioniany395 Gervcopillhec izlnae Sulalnm i I Cercqpvilh ci ae Suilcimrilgr Caliiilzwlnra I G quot I39Fquot F5r Cl1i39rnpniruzese Euznrbnlzi lFquot4ngIiil P d Dental Formula 2 1 3 3 i Dental formula half a jaw incisor canine premolar molar 1 example 2 incisors 1 canine 3 premolars 3 molars e Families 1112 approx 120 species F rst Primate f millions mi lilmls Hf puma EFL InfI39yaan39s EA PEHIDD Inf as PEHHIEID II 131 3 l imgnu Flrst 2 1 2 Hnmlmllds HISIJII E E E 2039 Dliglawmw 2500 V E 35 E Dmnurmrm E Euaame E Sillalriazrn quot h i H E C 39 gm 1 An am urmwclan Prumates HEIDI E Gmbnm E Finhwmm E Vfsmdilgm 43300 g Primitive Eutherian Features i iv V Long snout Small brain No postorbital bar strut around eye socket not fully enclosed Claws at the end of the digits Thumb and big toe not Very opposable in some species h Primate Features Ankle Some with nail on big toe only Some with grasping big toe Molar tooth morphology lliddle ear maybe i Unique Features i Large procumbent protrude horizontally more than Vertically incisors with a diastema space or gap between adjacent teeth in dental row Many dental specializations and highly reduced dental formulae All but P2iggczforioz5 had too few premolars to be ancestral to true primates j Phylogeny E E u 39 E10quot mm a V1 IEIJVI En an E EE 1 quot1 CE 43 GE an as E m 2 E 4 E Q v 3 ill IE CU t U 5 CU j Cl C m W 3 51 D5 CIJ 53 D 5394 5 s 1 In E In E Q 3I In In E m 3 Ln 8 N E In E Fquot E r 3 Er E 5 n 5quot u 1 F 52 n 53 1 I2 39 Strepsirhini C3lt3r39rhquot39lquot p Antlhrnpinideai Haplnrhini U Eupr rnates i 4 Euprimates True Primates a Primates of modern aspect b First appear in fossil record in earliest Eocene Adapiforms and Omomyoids i Eocene World 1 I V K U Ear5r TIrtianr5 U 4D lu1a Paleocene to Eocene Climate 1 65 MY A a 8 degrees C warmer than today b lce free poles c Tropical forest at high altitudes 2 Up to 52 MY A a temperatures had increased now global cooling 3 33 MY A a dramatic cooling b Antarctic ice sheet appears c Strepsirrhini wet nosed i Adapiformes 1 Range 56 approX 7 MYA 2 Distribution North America Europe Asia Africa 3 Body size 100 g 8 kg 4 Dental formula 2 1 4 3 some reduced 5 3 families 34 genera 75 species wil isnra mi lisna m 39 Hf wars EH4 In4fvmI39s v PEJHHIEID U 0 E First Primate 3 mm First 2 2 Hominids N530 E 200 Wigwam Adapiforms ZEUII Sm E Duwlmrm Eu 2 Silurian Em 3500 3 E UI 39CIUb l l IQDUU E J E Bmmlzlnarw Pammm E 39Imclinmn I 4330 6 7 Features a Basically lemur like lack dental comb front teeth arranged in a way similar to a comb c Some are diurnal Include many frugivores and folivores fruit and leaves e One lineage probably represents the ancestors of modern Strepsirhines f Phylogeny Lorisiformes 15 species Lem Liriformes 22 species Adap ifornries 75 species Tarsfiidae 3 species Patvrrh in i 53 species Cercop itheco idea 77 species Homindidea 14 species Cata irrhi in i Anthrcipnideai Strepsirhiiirii Haplorhini g d Haplorrhini dry nosed i Omomyoids 1 Range 5523 MYA 2 Distribution North America Europe Asia Africa 3 Body Size 30 g 25 kg most under 300 g 4 Dental Formula 2 1 4 3 many reduced 5 3 families 34 genera approx 70 species 1110 7 0 First Primaite 33 mm First 2 2 Hnminiids I530 E Jum glc 2quot E Tmirsslc V an E 0mirmyciids mm urmwician J E 5quot eaiimem 6 4500 E as 7 Features a Most are smaller than adapiforms tarsier like but lack many tarsier specializations b Small canines big incisors c Some with euprimate ears some later forms with haplorhine like ears d May be ancestral to haplorhines tarsiers or neither 8 Phylogeny Lor isiformes 15 species Lemurliformes 22 spieciiesl Omonrwdidea 70 species Ta rsii lid ate 3 spec39ies Platvrrhlnl 53 s peclies Cercop39itheco39idea 77 sipeclies Hcmmnondea L4 sipecfiesl Strepsirhini 5 Anthropod Origins Cauta Irrh in i Anthropoidelai Haplorhini mil ialnra mi limu Irnillliannu nil 1rmm ut1l39yamrs Inf grails 0 0 50 E 10039 E W1 munu 3 Miaesnv E 2 ms EM Jura uiv E mliar lc 29 E mm mm Catarrh irnes 25 Z E Anthmpoidis mung E m ll Em V 3530 5 1 g Asian Forms Uf iihfli wu annn 5 E Fa eaoem asou 5 a b The Fayurn Egypt i Slow owing rivers flow to Tethys Sea Monsoonal tropical forest evergreens along river 3631 MY A iv 5 families 15 genera including anthropoids adapids ornornyoids early catarrhines c Early Anthropoids i Features 1 Postorbital closure de nite anthropoid feature 2 Tyrnpanic ring similar to platyrhines 3 Fused frontal bone feature shared by all anthropoids d Late Eocene Fayum Anthropoids i Range 3633 MYA 1V Vi Distribution Afro Arabia Body Size 0330 kg Dental Formula 2 1 3 3 some 2 1 2 3 Features 1 Some have unfused mandible 2 Some have prosimian teeth 3 families 12 genera 18 species e Family Propliothecidae 1 iv Vi Vii Range 3433 MYA Distribution Africa Body Size 47 kg Dental Formula 2 1 2 3 Features 1 Fused mandible 2 Anthropoid teeth Earliest Catarrhines 2 genera 6 species f Other potential Anthropoids i Pau dauiggia c0z z e7z39 and A7 pJz39bz39z Jew Mogdu ge iii 1 Paundaung family Myan Mar 2 4044 MY A 3 Anthropoid like teeth Fused symphysis in A Mogauiggemiy E052may Jz397 emz39v 1 Shanghuang China 2 Approx 45 MY A 3 Anthropoid like dentition unfused symphysis Unclear about post orbital closure 6 Ida D4772Z7125 Mariae 21 47 million year old fossil found in Germany b About the size of a raccoon C 7 Phylogeny Shows Strepsirhine and Haplorhine features m 15 UL E9 3533 M3 3 mi 51 3 1 El he as m 3 3 L 3 as 3949 39 39 73 113 ta 95 399 En 3 D an am I p am 2 E P an an E 939 tn 3 E 53 mg 53 m mg Em Em R D3 Strepsirhini A Eatarr nini f Anthmpnidea Haplarlhini a 8 Ape Ancestor oz Sczczdczmm aykzzeizyiy i Monkeylike and apelike pf Suggests that apes and monkeys split some between 23 and 29 million year ago b Pmcomul species i Kenya Uganda and Rwanda Dozens of species living between 235 MY A 6 Ugcmdapifyecm myor i 20 million years old p6 Found in a volcanic layer in Uganda 9 Other Issues a Platyrhines i First in South America approx 27 MY A simultaneous with caviomorph rodents p Closest relatives in Africa b Pliopithecids Primitive sister catarrhine radiation in Europe and Asia i PZ 6 genera 17 species 2610 MY A 10 Summary a Plesiadapforms a major radiation in North America and Europe 6555 MY A a period of increasing global temperatures i Most are too derived to be ancestral to Euprimates d As a group the sister taXon to primates Continent of origin UNICNOWN b Euprimates appear 55 MY A with Eocene global warming i Adapiforms are generally lemur like and probably ancestors to strep sirhines wet nosed 0 Omomyoids are small and tarsier like and may be ancestral to haplorhines dry nosed just tarsiers or just anthropoids North American and European forms largely go extinct during late Eocene global cooling c lda nice transitional stage between Prosimians strepsirhines and Anthropoids haplorhines d De nite anthropoids at Fayum by 36 MY A i Had prosimian teeth but postorbital closure First catarrhines also present at the Fayum but about 33 MY A Platyrhine problem i Several older Asian forms may be more primitive anthropoids Check out short film http wwwpbsorg wgbh nova evolution rst primateshtml
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