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Chapter 8 and 10 Lecture Notes

by: Hannah Kennedy

Chapter 8 and 10 Lecture Notes 10120

Marketplace > Kent State University > Biological Sciences > 10120 > Chapter 8 and 10 Lecture Notes
Hannah Kennedy
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These notes cover everything in chapters 8 and 10. Topics include photosynthesis, the calvin cycle, the cell cycle, mitosis, checkpoints, p53 gene, and cancer cells
Biological Foundations Honors
Professor Grampa
Class Notes
Biology, Biology Foundations, Photosynthesis, calvin cycle, Cell Cycle, control of the cell cycle, cell checkpoints, Mitosis, p53, cancer cells
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kennedy on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 10120 at Kent State University taught by Professor Grampa in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Biological Foundations Honors in Biological Sciences at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 02/27/16
Copyright: © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 1 Chapter 10 Lecture Notes 1. Bacterial Cell Division a. Binary fission = a closing process bacteria use in which bacterium divide into 2 identical  bacterium b. Daughter cells = 2 cells produced as a result of cell division c. Origin of replication = the site at which DNA begins to be replicated so binary fission can occur d. Septum = a new membrane that forms between the 2 daughter cells i. Facilitated by FtsZ 2. Eukaryotic Chromosomes a. Each cell of the human body contains 23 pairs of chromosomes i. Aka 46 chromosomes ii. Haploid = n = 1 complete set of chromosomes 1. Ex = sperm and egg cells iii. Diploid = 2n = 2 copies of each chromosomes 1. Ex = all cells that aren’t sperm and egg cells iv. Homologue = each pair of chromosomes b. Chromatin = DNA + protein i. Genes are localized to specific chromosomes 1. Each chromosome contains 1 DNA molecule compacted to fit into the nucleus c. Histone proteins = positively­charged proteins in which DNA wraps around for  consolidation 3. The cell cycle = the process in which cellular replication occurs with periods of growth followed  by division; 24 hours a. The cell cycle  Stage of cell cycle What is happening Interphase/M phase G 1= gap phase 1 ­ primary growth phase, cell is  Interphase becoming bigger and expanding  everything ­ making sure theres enough  cytoplasm, organelles, etc ­ the longest  S = synthesis ­ cells make a copy of the genome Interphase (chromosomes replicate to form  identical copy) ­ DNA replication nd G 2= gap phase 2 ­ 2  growth phase that prepares  Interphase the cell for division ­ microtubules reorganize ­ cell gets bigger and is doubled  up ­ chromosomes condense and  become even tighter Mitoses ­ sister chromatids are pulled  M phase apart during 5 subdivided states ­ prophase Copyright: © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 2 ­ prometaphase ­ metaphase ­ anaphase ­ telophase Cytokinesis ­ cytoplasm divides to form 2  M phase daughter cells G0 ­ cells exit the cell cycle and go N/A into a state of rest in which they  don’t divide ­ can re­enter the cell cycle later b. Interphase i. Cohesins = proteins that hold chromosome copies together along their lengths ii. Sister chromatic = the identical copy of each chromosome iii. Kinetochore = disc­like structures of proteins that help join sister chromatids 1. Microtubules attach here during mitosis 2. Centromere = the point at which the kinetochore is anchored a. Where the sister chromatids constrict c. Mitosis i. Spindle = component involved in mitosis that will separate sister chromatids; one  spindle is on each side of the cell with microtubules attached Mitosis stage What is happening Prophase ­ chromosomes continue to condense ­ cytoskeleton is disassembled ­ nuclear envelope breaks down ­ golgi and ER disperse Prometaphase ­ microtubules attach to kinetochore ­ chromosomes begin to move to middle of the cell Metaphase ­ chromosomes line up in middle of the cell ­ chromosomes begin to experience tension Anaphase  ­ cohesin proteins are broken down ­ sister chromatids are pulled to opposite sides of  the cell ­ tubulin subunits are continuously removed to  shorten the length of the microtubules Telophase ­ chromosomes decondense ­ nucleus re­forms ­ ER re­forms ­ golgi re­forms Cytokinesis ­ belt of actin contracts and pinches the cell into 2  daughter cells 4. Control of the cell cycle (2 factors we focus on) a. Cyclin­dependent kinases = CDKs = influence protein activity through phosphorylation b. Cyclins = bind to and activate CDKs c. There are several stopping point as the cell progresses through the cell cycle to check and  make sure that the phases are completed appropriates Copyright: © Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 3 Name of checkpoint What it is based on What is happening What prevents a cell from making it through this checkpoint G 1S checkpoint ­ External factors  ­ increase in G1 cyclin  ­ damage to DNA (growth factors) triggers the activity of  ­ starvation conditions of ­ deciding whether or  enzymes needed for  the cell  not to replicate DNA replication ­ lack of growth factors G 2M checkpoint ­ successful DNA  ­ damaged DNA can  ­ damage to DNA replication inactivate CDKs ­ cell decides if it will  enter mitosis Spindle checkpoint ­ cell makes sure that  ­ anaphase­promoting  ­ if chromosomes aren’t  the spindles have  complex sets a series of  aligned properly attached properly events to break down  cohesin if they are  attached properly 5. Growth factors = proteins which bind to membrane receptors and initiate pathways that result  in cell growth and division a. Cells have specific receptors for the growth factors i. Growth factors can only trigger certain cells b. These trigger the production of cyclins so that the cell cycle may begin c. Without these the cells leave the cell cycle and enter G 0 6. Cancer a. Characteristics of a cancer cell is the ability to ignore cell cycle checkpoints and zip through them b. P53 gene = involved in the G /S and G /S checkpoints that codes for a protein that checks  1 2 for proper DNA replication; triggers enzymes to repair the DNA if it is damaged i. Apoptosis = cell death that occurs if the DNA cannot be repaired 1. P53 is missing/faulty in cancerous cells Copyright ©: Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 1 Chapter 8 1. Photosynthesis = a light­dependent process that occurs in plants (leaves), bacteria, and algae (3  steps) 6CO  2 12H O 2 light               6 C12 6  + 6H2O + 6O 2 a. Capture energy from sunlight b. Make ATP i. Reduce NADP  to NADPH c. Use ATP, NADPH, and CO  to mak2 organic molecules  2. Chloroplasts – inner and outer membrane a. Thylakoid disks = flattened stacks of chloroplasts b. Grana = composed of stacks of thylakoid disks c. Chlorophyll = pigment contained within the thylakoid membrane that captures light  energy and makes ATP d. Stroma = the inside of chloroplast that contains enzymes 3. Photons and pigments a. Photon = a particle of light that contains energy of which is transferred by chloroplasts to  electrons to excite and raise them to a higher energy level i. Energy is inversely proportional to wavelength (i.e. long wavelengths have low  energy and short wavelengths have high energy) b. Pigments = absorb light energy in the visible range (i.e. the color that you so is the one  that hasn’t been absorbed) i. Contained in chlorophyll and carotenoids 1. Chlorophyll = pigments that absorb violet­blue and red light a. Electrons in the central ring are excited and then channeled through  the hydrocarbon tail 2. Carotenoids = pigments that absorb light that chlorophyll can’t a. Important for the neutralization of free radicals 4. Light­dependent reactions (4 steps in the thylakoids) a. Primary photo­event i. Photon of light is captured b. Charge separation i. Reaction center transfers electron to acceptor c. Electron transport i. Electron carriers shuttle electrons and transport proton to create a gradient d. Chemiosmosis i. Protons flow down gradient to create ATP 5. Photosystems = components that include pigments and proteins that trap light energy as excited  electrons—photosystem I and photosystem II (2 components)  a. Antenna complex = web of hundreds of chlorophyll molecules held together within  thylakoid membrane by a protein matrix that captures photons from the sun and channels  them to chlorophylls i. Energy passes from 1 pigment to another until it reaches the reaction center b. Reaction center = component of a photosystem that eventually receives the energy and  the excited electron i. Once the chlorophyll in the reaction center is excited it can be oxidized (because it is  now a strong electron donor)  Copyright ©: Hannah Kennedy, Kent State University 2 1. This electrons is passed to a chain of electron acceptors (analogous to the  electron transport chain) and light energy is converted into chemical energy a. Electron acceptor is Quinone and the donor is water 6. Noncyclic photophosphorylation (represented as the Z diagram) a. Photosystem II oxidizes water to replace the electrons it transfers to photosystem I i. To make 1 oxygen molecule, 4 photons of light are absorbed and 2 molecules of water are oxidized ­ b. Cytochrome/b f com6lex = proton pump that links the photosystems together i. Receives a pair of excited electrons from Quinone from photosystem II ii. 1 electron pair causes 1 proton to be pumped from the stroma into the thylakoid  space c. Photosystem I transfers electrons to NADP  to make NADPH i. NADP reductase = catalyzes this transfer 7. Chemiosmosis = the proton gradient used to generate ATP a. ATP synthase is used to make the gradient and to pump H protons; contained in the  thylakoid i. As protons move through the channel of the enzyme, ATP is made 8. Calvin cycle = cycle through which carbon fixation occurs with the goal to produce sugars a. During the process: i. Ribulose 1,5­biphosphate (RuBP) = molecule produced by photosynthetic cells  that is made by joining 2 intermediates from glycolysis 1. 6 molecules of CO  a2e bound to 6 molecules of RuBP via rubisco a. Makes 12 molecules of 3­phophoglycerate (PGA) b. 6 turns of this cycles makes 1 glucose molecules


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