Language Transmission of Ideas
Language Transmission of Ideas APY204
Popular in Linguistic Anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Notetaker on Monday April 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APY204 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Everett in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Linguistic Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
Language Transmission of Ideas We try to increase our status somehow o That’s what communication often is o Purpose of communication is not transmission of ideas Pragmatics o How you use language to accomplish social goals o You’re trying to accomplish something social all the times o Implicature Purpose of what you say is to politely give an order Big part of how we manage social things Ex: kid saying “bottle” means “I want that bottle, get me that bottle” Ex: “isn’t that too loud” = please lower the volume, it bothers me Popularity- polite to use implicature Mitigates social awkwardness of accomplishing stuff socially Communicative competence o Someone from another language speaking English may not know how to use things like implicature Speech community o Community shares norms when it comes to talking o They vary o Ethnography of communication Study of social ways in which people use speech Looks at what is communicative competence is Phatic communication o Gets used to accomplish social bonding & emotional purposes o Otherwise, its meaningless o Ex: “sorry” only meaningful as social act you’re trying to accomplish (offering condolences, understanding pain of other) o Ex: “What’s up/how are you” social meaning only, acknowledgment; acknowledge existence of the other o Most communities have thisbut varies… some cultures have hierarchies Paralinguistic norms o You’re always doing stuff when you speak o Many are gestural in nature o Expectation of distance between speaker and what you do with your face o Body language portion o People have to show paralinguistic interest in what you’re saying Eye contact, raising eyebrows o We are very attuned to this stuff Less than 2 secs, we pick up this stuff immediately Proxemics o How far or where you are when you talk to someone o Varies cross-culturally o May be harder than actual grammar o Key to being “normal” o Varies depending on how intimate you are to someone o Reflection of your culture Backchanneling o Feedback you’re giving to someone as they speak o Varies cross culturally o Most basic eye contact, nodding, murmuring assent Gestures are crucial that fluency decreases when tied up o Every cultural group has gestures o Maybe most primal thing? Before language Different channels of communication o Writing o Whistle speech Exists in few of the world’s cultures (usually in tonal languages, not always) Usually in areas like deep jungle (Amazon, used for hunting so as to not scare prey) or cavernous terrain Even with this you see gender effect (in amazon cultures, women not allowed to use whistle speech since it’s for hunting and strictly for males only) Sylbo (Islas Canarias) … Spanish isn’t tonal language (shows exception) o Advantages- distances Speech genres & acts/events o Varies cross culturally o Ex: lecture, party, etc.… Different rules with different contexts… rules not universal with every genre or culture o Speech events are exemplars of speech genres o Certain paralinguistic norms vary by genre Ex: Backchanneling in a lecture isn’t normal Clapping isn’t universal … no clapping instinct Culturally contingent Way we meet universal rules varies substantially Cultural norms Not all cultural norms are universal o Especially when it comes to the way in which we as humans approach biological needs (like food, mating, communication, etc.) Reflected by language and paralinguistics Food o What constitutes as good food, what you crave o Culturally influenced o We think its biological but really its largely influenced by culture Kissing o Only developed in some cultures o Kissing/romantic kissing is not universal o Study looked at 168 cultures around the world Found that kissing is uncommon in more egalitarian, less socially complex societies (hunter-gatherer for the most part) o Not as biologically driven as we assume o Why? Disease... some people find it bizarre, maybe we do it bc better oral hygiene? o Not biologicalsame applied to paralinguistics