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This 11 page was uploaded by Abby Notetaker on Friday April 18, 2014. The belongs to a course at University of Washington taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 168 views.
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Date Created: 04/18/14
Week 3 Notes 4142014 Parts of Femur Condyes bumps on bone covered with articular cartilage connect with Tibia Knee Joint Tendons of quadriceps 4 muscles connect over patella knee joint Not as stable as hip joint Hinge joint needs accessory things to hold it together patear ligament anterior cruciate ligament ACL Posterior cruciate ligament PCL collateral ligament running along sides Knee joint is biggestjoint in the body simple synovial joint joint capsule completely encloses joint synovial membrane underneath joint capsule secretes synovial fluid which reduces friction Meniscus fibrocartilage pad for shock absorption Medial Meniscus Latera Meniscus Aso help to stabilize joint cup shaped Fat in the knee provides cushioning Knee Injuries Cruciate Ligaments ACL and PCL 0 ACL is easy to tear since it is a ligament it has a poor recovery or no recovery due to low blood flow to area 0 Can be fixed surgically 0 Much more common to be torn than PCL 10 to 1 Damage to Meniscus 0 Can tear o If it s a peripheral tear that easier to fix because there is blood flow I Can be fixed by orthoscopic surgery stitch meniscus back in place o If it s farther in the meniscus surgeon may just clip it off to keep flap from getting stuck in joint Osteoarthritis damage to articular cartilage or bone at a joint Deviations of the Tibia from the midline 0 Unequal weight distribution 0 Unequal wear and tear 0 Normal alignment is not completely straight o Bow egged bones vertical knee only connected at one point o Knock Kneed knee angles inward Bursa capsules filled with synovial fluid Act as cushions on knee Bursitis when a bursa becomes inflamed comes from harsh treatment of bursa either kneeling a lot or hitting knee hard looks like a lot of swelling in knee Fibula and Ankle 0 Talus bone articulates with Fibula ankle joint 0 Calcaneus bone heel bone is what makes your heel stick out posteriorly Arch of the Foot 0 Arches helpful for walkingrunning 0 Helps propel your foot off the ground by flattening out when step on it and springing back Injuries of ankle and foot Sprained Ankle 0 Damage to tendonligament 0 Takes weeks to heal Gout 0 A disease ofjoints 0 Caused by having excessive levels of uric acid in blood 0 Uric acid crystallizes out in joints very painful and causes inflammation 0 50 of gout patients have gout in their big toe joint 0 Called the disease of Kings because a lot of the old kings had it thought to relate to diet o May be related to diet o Lots of meat and alcohol may contribute to it o Could be from hereditary kidney problems 0 Gout can cause erosion of the bone Glenohumeral Joint shoulder joint 0 Ball and socketjoint o Bahead of humerus o Scapula causes cup socket part ofjoint I Scapula is an odd flat shaped bone against ribs can feel in back shoulder blade Firms glenoid cavity Very shallowjoint Easy to pop out A lot of mobility in arm OOOO Pectoral Girdle 2 Bones 0 Clavicle and Scapula only meet at one small point 0 Clavicle acts as space to keep shoulder spaced out from midline I Unique to humans and chimps dogs and cats don39t have clavicle o Acromion bump sticking out of scapula that makes contact with clavicle Rotator Cuff Muscles Muscles attached by tendons to shoulder joint tendonsrotator cuff Biceps Tendons running up to humerus and one running to scapula Most important for stabilizing joint Dislocation of Shoulder 0 Most frequently dislocated joint in body 0 Glenohumeral joint shallow 0 Have to hit it with a lot of force 0 Treatment shift back into place 0 Artificial shoulderjoint artificial head of humerus and shaft of bone Elbow Joint 0 Elbow joint is 2 joints in one 0 End of humerus has one condyle that is rounded capitulum and one that is flat and cup like trochlea 0 Trochlea connects to ulna to form hinge joint 0 Capitulum connects to radius to form quotspinning joint Hand Bones Foot Bones 3 phalanges per finger 2 in thumb 3 phalanges per toe 2 in big toe 5 metacarpal bones Carpal bones 5 metatarsal bones Tarsal bones 0 Achilles tendon pulls on calcaneus bulge of heel to extend the ankle 0 Extension of anke pantar flexion of the foot Radiocarpal joint joint between radius and carpal bones restricted joint because 9 or ten tendons run through it Osteoarthritis in hands 0 Articular cartilage gets worn away 0 Bone may be eroded 0 Symptoms similar to rheumatoid arthritis but very different causes Rheumatoid arthritis 0 Autoimmune disease body attacking synovial membrane in finger joints 0 Inflammation articular cartilage worn away bone eroding MUSCLES 0 642 muscles in the body 0 Only need to know terms on website 29 muscles Classification of muscles 1 2 3 Skeletal voluntary Cardiac involuntary Smooth involuntary General Functions of muscles 1 2 3 Movementmove bones Stabiity stabilizing joints posture Heat production General Properties of Muscles 1 Contractility ability to shorten themselves 2 Conductivity can conduct electrical impulses This allows for signal from nerve to conduct across the whole muscle instead ofjust parts at a time 3 Elasticity cells can be stretched and return to normal 4 Excitability responding to any stimulus stepping on a stick touching a hot burner Adaptations 1 Muscles can adapt to training to become stronger faster more endurance 2 Adapt to cold a Short termshivering9 heat production General Characteristics 0 A typical muscle is 100 microns in diameter 01 mm and 3 cm long 0 Some are as thick as 500 microns 05 mm and 30 cm long 0 A musche cell is generally referred to as muscle fiber 0 Agonist prime mover Responsible for moving given joint in a given directions muscle supplying the most force 0 Antagonist opposes prime mover at a joint 0 Synergist muscle that works with agonist to contribute to same over all action at a joint Can act slightly out of phase ex Runningwalking Muscles must overcome 3 forces 1 Gravity 2 nertia a body in motion tends to stay in motion a body at rest stays at rest 3 Force of the opposing muscle group works best when antagonist muscle is relaxed Co Contraction agonist and antagonist act together to stabilize a joint Ex landing from a jump quads and hamstrings contract together to stabilize knee joint Efficiency of patterned movement Antagonist and agonist act out of phase to cooperate ex Running quads contract first then hamstrings Skeletal Muscle 1 Slow Twitch Type 1 a Type I b Small c Light work 2 Fast twitchEndurance a Type Ila b Medium c More difficult work 3 Fast Twitchpower a Type llb b Large in diameter c Easily fatigued d Kicks in when other muscles are fatigued or heavy work Flexors and Extensors Origin anchor Insertion part that moves 1 Flexor Muscle ex Biceps brings insertion closer to body 2 Extensor ex Triceps increases angle 3 Brings body part closer to center of body some exceptions Musce can be extensor and flexor based on joint talked about Ex Hamstring extends hip but flexes knee 41714 Muscle Relaxation Can control relaxation of muscles 0 Normally takes experience 0 At first you may contract opposing muscles when learning a new skill ex skiing Muscle Actions Abduction movement away from midline of body Adduction movement towards center of body adding to body Pronation rotation of forearm medially inward resulting in the palm facing posterior radius and ulna twist Supintation rotation outward resulting in palm facing anterior Example Foot Pronated ankle shifted inward Supinated ankle rotated to outside When arch flattens foot is tipped in pronated When arch springs up tipped out supinated Sprain vs Strain Strain is a muscle tear minor 1112 days to heal muscles highly vascularized microtears A Sprain is a ligament being overstretched 0 Some ligaments can lengthen 6 beyond normal without tearing some 12 0 Ligament attachment is really strong so bony attachment can be pulled off before ligament is torn 2 weeks 3 or 4 months recovery The Role of other soft tissues 0 Joints that have forces coming from a lot of directions will be quot cross stitched with ligaments to be ready for any force ex Ankle 0 Tendons can store potential energy Tendons 0 Most common muscle with tendons at both ends 0 Cordlike tendons long tendons with muscle at top ex Achilles tendon 0 Peroneus longus tendon goes behind calf muscle attaches to big toe important for holding arch 0 Tendons are just collagen so they are easily replaced by cadavers or taking parts of the patient s other tendons lliotibial band IT Bandlongest tendon in body extending from hip illium to outside part of lower knee tibia Aponeurosis tendons with wide sheetOike attachments that attach broad muscles back abdomen Muscle Naming 1 First names after its bone then its location ex Tibialis anterior tibialis posterior 2 Also named for action they take a Ex flexor action halluces bone longus shape How to think about muscle actions 1 Where is muscle in bodylimb 2 Which bones is it attached to 3 What happens when it contracts 41814 Muscle Naming Gym Name vs Real Name Deltoid Deltoid Diaphragm Diaphragm Biceps Biceps brachii Triceps Triceps brachii Pec Pectoralis Major Lats Latissimus Dorsi Gastroc calf Gastrocnemus Glutes Gluteus Maximus medius minimus Abs Rectus Abdominus Quads Quadriceps 4 muscles Hammies Hamstrings 3 muscles Joints bones and attached muscles can act as levers 0 Levers act to produce a gain in force speed or distance 0 Lever can exert more force than the force applied to lever 0 Long evermore force 0 Shorter lever less force same amount of work Arm Muscles Brachialisz prime flexor of the elbow Bulges up under biceps when you flex Originates at humerus inserts at Ulna ulna is fixed bone Triceps Brachii extensor extends elbow major extensor Biceps Brachii supinator of forearm Forearm supinators 0 2 muscles supinate the forearm o Biceps brachii o Supinator muscle 0 Biceps brachii inserts on medial side of radius 0 Supinator inserts on lateral side of radius 0 The inserts force the radium to rotate in a counter clockwise direction Leg Muscles Quadriceps 0 Act to extend the knee and flex the hip 0 4 muscles 1 group 0 Can classify by group because they are innervated y a single nerve femoral nerve 0 Deep view Vastus intermedius medialis lateralis don39t attach to hip 0 Superficial view Rectus femoris attaches to hip Hamstring Group 0 Antagonist group to Quads 0 3 posterior thigh muscles 0 Flex the knee bending 0 Extend the hip like when in a lunge 0 3 muscles are 0 Semimembranosus o Semitendinosus o Biceps femoris 0 2 tendons that you can feel on back of your bent knee in the hollow are the tendons that are from semimembranosus medial side and biceps femoris lateral side Foot Muscles Gastrocnemius calf muscle Soleusz under Gastrocnemius 0 Very powerful together 0 Work together to absorb shock some absorbed in foot 0 Plantar flexion of foot Tibialis Anterior 0 Prime mover of dorsiflexion of the foot Major shin muscle Attaches to big toe ankle bone Can act on Tibia ankle bone or big toe metatarsal I Common injuryshin splints Hip Muscles Hip adductors adduct the thigh 0 Located medially to bone it acts on 0 Adductor magnus brevis short longus long Lateral compartment of Thigh Tensor Fasciae latae TFL 0 TFL and Gluteus maximus form IT band o If you overuse either muscle they swell up which stresses IT band then abnd starts sawing back and forth over bump causing pain 0 TFL has a role in abducting thigh and extending knee Anterior Trunkhip flexors 0 2 interconnected hip flexors o Illiacus and psoas make the illiopsoas muscle 0 Illiopsoas muscle is prime mover of hip flexor 0 Strongest of muscles which flex hip 0 Antiversion if you sit too much and don t let illiopsoas muscle relax it can cause forward tilt of pelvis This can strain back and hamstrings 0 Hip flexors thread through middle of body and attach to lumbar vertebrae and hip bone Gluteus Group Powerful muscle group extendabduct femur Used in running climbing weightlifting Named in order of size not from lateral to medial location o Maximus o Medius o Minimus Help with posture Piriformis 0 Strong muscle 0 Important in stabilizing hip 0 Occupies sciatic notch o Sciatic nerve runs through it o If piriformis is overused can swell and compress nerve and cause sciatica I Shooting pain down back of leg I Can come from piriformis or vertebral problems Back Muscles Low Back pain 0 80 of people have pain in life 0 Most frequent cause of lost work time adults lt 45 Trapezius 0 Stabilizes clavicle and scapula during arm movements 0 Elevates top of shoulder shrugging 0 Fibers that run along can move shoulder anterior a little 0 Overhead lifting Latissimus Dorsi 0 Armpit to waits 0 Broadest muscle in back 0 Sheetlike 0 Tendon insertion to anterior side of humerus wraps around 0 Extend adduct medially rotate humerus 0 Raises body towards arm when climbing Erector Spinae 0 Superficial group 0 Long 0 Extends from sacrum to skull 0 3 major muscles 0 Stability of spine 0 Extending back straightening 0 Rotate spine one side or other small contribution 3 back muscles cover a lot of surface area in the back
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