Black Studies: Civil Rights Movement
Black Studies: Civil Rights Movement
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This 5 page Reader was uploaded by Hannah DuVivier on Friday April 18, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 115 views.
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Date Created: 04/18/14
Black Studies 6 Civil Rights Movement 41814 158 PM 14 April 2014 Representation in the House is based on population the state which has the largest number of members in the House is the state with the largest population 9 35 Compromise so that the representation of Virginia would not be overwhelmed they counted slaves as 35 of a person 9 this elevates the representational numbers for states like Virginia Constitution Article 1 Section 9 Clause 1 You cannot end the slave trade in the US until 1808 Article 4 Section 2 Clause 3 Fugitive Slave Clause required a slave who flees to another state to be returned to the owner in the state from which they fled Article 5 Allows for the amendment of the Constitution 9 2 ways 1 by convention or 2 when 23 of both Houses of Congress deem it necessary You can amend the Constitution for any purpose you can imagine except two things 0 You can39t amend the Constitution to end the slave trade prior to 1808 0 You can39t amend the Constitution to prevent the fundamental check of each state having two Senators The Era of Jacksonian Democracy the era in which the majority of the white male population got the right to fully participate in this country A nation is identified by its boundaries etc Section Notes 15 April 2014 Howard Zinn A People39s History These prominent historical figures began to represent places that they were not Christopher Columbus represents death he single handedly wiped out 90 of the native people on the land that he thought he discovered Checks and Balances Got rid of confederation then created a nation state According to Professor Madison how does he define nation and state Nation homogenous population that shares a common language culture etc State the government Created a system designed to protect their economic interest 9 primarily to protect the slave trade from going extinct before they could reap as much profit as they could Created the checks and balances system in order to keep the president from becoming king US Constitution Four major places in the US Constitution that reinforce and protect slavery Article 1 Section 2 Clause 3 0 35 Compromise affected House of Representatives 9 not voting right but rather for representative rights 0 Senate maintained at 2 per state Article 1 Section 2 Clause 9 0 Cannot end slave trade until 1808 Article 4 Section 2 Clause 3 o Fugitive Slave Act 9 for slaves leaving your state does not protect you extradition 9 applied to everyone including indentured servants Article 5 o Amending the Constitution except to end slavery prior to 1808 and two senators per state 0 Conventional history Coup 9 coups are usually associated with third world countries Voting Rights Restricted to males with property ownership Later extended to make all white males able to vote earlier it wasn39t all white males due to indentured servitude Era of Jacksonian Democracy questioning critical dialect 9 in which the majority of white males were able to obtain the right to vote 0 Louisiana Purchase leads to the discussion of additional rights and leverage to those occupying the new borders 9 need to secure borders 0 Leads to exclusion of people of color and women Readings Civil Rights Chapter 15 Epistemology of Civil Rights in the United States o Blacks have always struggled for their rights freedom 9 from the international slave trade through today ie Incarceration Voting Rights Act 1964 9 prohibits discrimination in voting Malcolm X and MLK Assassination ignites a move from integrationinterracial coalitions to Black power empowerment politics 0 Black Panther Party 9 don39t go to the cops come to us so we can find a way to mediate the process that doesn39t involve the criminal justice system 9 started out as a basic outreach organization As it pertains to Black history in the US who are the primary actors discussed in US history 9 Usually all males forefathers presidents businessmen etc What are Civil Rights 9 protection of wealth and property and those that assume the power over wealth and property 9 civil rights aren39t universal constitutionally speaking International Slave Trade 0 From accessory to economic necessity o Slavery was universal poor whites native Americans Indians and African slaves 0 Reasons justifications for mass African enslavement Production was main reasonargument for transition to African slaves European escaped slaves also blended into their surrounding areas much easier Slavery was forever and generational 0 Religion Descendants of Ham accursed son of Noah savages pagans etc I Out of God39s guise beyond pae of civilization Out of the populousness of Africa 16 April 2014 Movie Judgment Day Africans in America 18 April 2014 Dred Scott v Sandford 19 Howard 393 1857 As a result of the Kansas Nebraska Act Kansas turned into a sort of battlefield First case in which the US Supreme Court overturned an act of Congress 9 expansion of the Supreme Court39s power 1834 Dred Scott slave was taken by his master Emerson to Illinois where slavery was prohibited Later he was taken in 1836 to a territory in Louisiana which was north of the Mason Dixon line where slavery was prohibited by the Missouri Compromise 0 Any territory or state coming in to the Union below the line could or could not be a slave state depending on popular preference but above the line it had to be a non save state Dred Scott had been taken to the Louisiana territory above the Mason Dixon line and the fact that he had been taken to Illinois 9 the basis for his case once free you can never be un free In 1838 he was brought back to Missouri Supreme Court could have said 0 You39re right when you went to Illinois and Louisiana you were free but when you went back to Missouri you became a slave again The vote in the case was 72 9 relatively strong case The decision was no the court held that Negro was not intended to be included under the term citizen thus he had no rights that a citizen would have The Negro had no rights which the white man was bound to respect The Founding Fathers owned slaves 9 if they owned slaves then they couldn39t have written that black people were supposed to be citizens The Founders of this country saw black people as creatures that were not only not citizens but things that could be put into slavery Chief Justice Taney agreed blacks are not citizens 0 Black people could be citizens of Massachusetts etc but not of the United States 0 Thus they are excluded from the portion of the Constitution that is the Bill of Rights they have no protection under the Bill of Rights 0 The Bill of Rights was applicable to the national government not the state government Slaves are property and a man has the right to move his property anywhere he wants to move it and Congress cant pass a law prohibiting him from moving his property 9 Congress can t pass a law prohibiting the movement of slaves 9 the immediate effect of this Constitutional mandate opens the country to slavery and thus the Civil War Civil War Lincoln had no interest in ending slavery per say The idea of freeing slaves was a secondary thing Emancipation Proclamation not an instrument to free slaves 9 it was carefully worded so as not to do this 0 It freed the slaves in the rebellious territories which Lincoln had no power in doing because they were in rebellion The Civil War was fought like a 19 century war in which armies fought against each other and at night the generals would meet and drink and the next day would go back to fighting 0 Almost all of the generals in the Civil War were graduates of West Point 9 they all knew each other 0 Problem the North is losing and they have to do something to correct that Emancipation Proclamation declaration of total war invention of total modern warfare 9 total war the target isn t the army of the enemy but the population ie What we did to Germany and Tokyo 9 if you can destroy the productive infrastructure of the society you can win the war In the south it is the slave population 9 if that population can be taken out the South would lose
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