Week 9 Notes
Week 9 Notes 4616 - HORT 102
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Irene A. on Monday March 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 4616 - HORT 102 at Washington State University taught by Michael Pumphrey in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultivated Plants in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 03/09/15
HORT 102 Weel 9 Notes Lecture 17 Tillage Seeding and Establishment I mechanical soil stirring action used to nurture plants 0 excessive tillage can destroy soil structure amp impair water movement 0 proper tillage controls weeds maintains soil amp creates ideal conditions for plants I ease or difficulty with which a soil can be tilled 0 determined by soil texture amp structure I type amp sequence of tillage operations used to prepare soil 0 Purposes O creating ideal conditions for seed germination preventing soil erosion 0 increase soil temperature 0 incorporatingmixing plant residues fertilizers lime herbicides I Lime increases pH level in acidic soil tillage helps mix it 0 control weeds by killing growing plants amp burying weed seeds 0 conserve soil water I NoTill or Minimum Tillage Systems 0 seeds must be placed below surface 0 weed control is more difficult may require more herbicides 0 good erosion control less fuel used for tillage implements I placement of seeds at the proper depth to ensure quick germination amp emergence 0 seeds w hypogeal emergence planted deeper than seeds w epigeal emergence O planting deeper ensures more moisture in sandy soil 0 ensure good seedtosoil contact 0 of plants per unit area 0 distribution arrangement of plants in an area 0 factors affecting planting rates amp distribution I percent germination amp seed quality I ability of plants to compete with other plants or utilize space I competitioncrowding I soil type amp fertility water holding capacity plants have optimal temp range for germination planting needs to be timed properly 0 early planting date more time to grow I increases rate of photosynthesis amp weed control I plants are larger amp more resistant when pests begin to feed I may lead to more seedseedling diseases due to cooler conditions Lecture 18 Climate and Weather Factors that affect crop production 0 environmental factors nonliving I climate weather soil type etc 0 living things whose functions affect crop growthdevelopment I weeds insects disease etc long term weather status 0 environmental conditions immediately surrounding an organism I affected by human activity tillage irrigation wind blocks etc I urban development absorb heat block air ow I vegetation cools area around plants temp wind direction etc at a given time short term status 0 affects crop typedistribution I Efficiency of water utilization Transpiration Evaporation Evapotranspiration ET I used to estimate the amount of water lost from a field 0 weather affects evaporative demands high temp low humidity etc 0 different crop types need different amounts of water 0 less evaporation occurs from shaded or mulched soil surfaces 0 water availability differs based on soil type 0 determines length of growing season I life cycles of different crops vary I some plants tolerate high or cold temperatures better than others I detrimental effects freezing heat stress 0 water content of the air I water required by plant to grow related to water content of air I moist air less water needed I dry air more water needed Lecture 19 Light 0 Light is important for O photosynthesis 0 seed germination O ower initiation amp development 0 stem elongation 0 leaf morphology 0 light varies w season amp altitude plants adapt to changes in conditions O strength of light I plants perceive light at levels gt 10 foot candles I low light plants have weak stems amp long internodes small yellow leaves leaves get more light than they can use photosynthetic mechanisms are damaged I sunburn or sunscald damage to plant parts due to overexposure O wavelength color of light I wavelengths correspond to colors I chlorophyll absorbs blue amp red light re ects green light I photosynthetically active radiation light energy used in photosynthesis moving towards positive or away negative from light 0 time span of light exposure I length of light period during 24 hr day 0 total light energy provided to plants I Photoperiodism response of plants to changes in photoperiod controlled by pigment phytochrome I plants are sensitive to photoperiod changes 0 Methods to modify light environment 0 turning on lights during the night to break up dark period I used to prevent owering of shortday plants induce owering of long day plants by turning on lights in the evening to extend the 39day39 O I prevent owering of shortday plants induce owering of longday plants using black cloths I induce owering of shortday plants prevent owering of longday plants to increase light penetration amp increase photosynthesis rate using shade to warm soil amp deter insects improve fruit color amp Use accelerate fruiting Optimize light interception Via plant population row spacing amp geneticsbreeding