Chapter 1 Notes: modern chemistry, basic terms in chemistry, significant figures.
Chapter 1 Notes: modern chemistry, basic terms in chemistry, significant figures. General Chemistry 0110
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Lee on Monday March 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to General Chemistry 0110 at University of Pittsburgh taught by in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 220 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 03/09/15
Chemistry Chapter 1 Notes A Modern Chemistry a Precise quantities of substances b Matter composed of atoms and precise arrangement of atoms into molecules i Synthesizebuild large molecules from small ones c Use for technology d Many relationships between living organisms i Inheritance DNA B Experiment and Explanation a Experiment observation of natural phenomena carried out in a controlled manner so that the results can be duplicated and rational conclusions made i Variables controlled or not valid experiment b Law concise statement or mathematical equation about a fundamental relationship or regularity of nature i Ex law of conservation of mass all quantity of matter remains constant during chemical change c Hypothesis tentative explanation of some regularity of nature d Many hypothesesl Theory tested explanation of basic natural phenomena i Theories can be disproved by experiments e Law of Conservation of Mass total mass remains constant during a chemical change i Mass quantity of matter in a material ii Matter general term for material things around us and perceived by senses iii Gain or loss of heat and other forms of energy iv Weight force of gravity exerted on it C Solids Liquids and Gases a Solidsrigidity maintain shape from outside forces b Liquid form of matter that is relatively incompressible xed volume but no shape c Gas form of matter that is easily compressible given quantity can shape and t anywhere i Gas and liquid differ in compressibility D Elements Compounds and Mixtures a Physical Change change in form of mater but not in chemical identity i Distillation used to separate mixture b Chemical Change change is which one or more kinds of matter are transformed into new matter i Physical property characteristic that can be observed for a material ii Chemical property characteristic involving chemical change Substance matter that cannot be separated into other kinds of matter by physical process Element established by Lavoisier substance that cannot be decomposed by chemical reaction into smaller substance Compound substance with two or more elements chemically combined Law of de nite proportions a pure compound whatever its source always contains de nite or constant proportions of elements by mass Mixture material that can be separated by physical means into two or more substances i Heterogeneous mixture mixture that consists of physically distinct parts each with different properties ii Homogenous mixture that is uniform in its properties throughout given samples 1 Phase one of several different homogenous materials present in portion of matter under study E Measurement and Signi cant Figures a b Unit xed standard of measurement Precision closeness of the set of values obtained from similar measurements of an identical quantity Accuracy closeness of a single measurement to its true value Signi cant Figures those digits in a measured number that include all certain digits plus nal digit having some uncertainty i Number of Signi cant Figures number of digits reported for the value of a measured or calculated quantity indicating precision of value