Week 7 & 8- Chapter 5: Caribbean Lecture
Week 7 & 8- Chapter 5: Caribbean Lecture GEOG:1090
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie Kreischer on Monday March 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG:1090 at University of Iowa taught by C. E. Pavlik in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Globalization and Geographic Diversity in Geography at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 03/09/15
Chapter 5 The Caribbean B t md rum r 7 mmm N rth A M Politlcal ll hysrcalMap r a 7 is V PE V f a 39I Over l m0UU is I V umrlm w 9 i scrimmirpmm m l xc selected crtresl Euirolltrmr39w 054 N o w Selectedsmallerciiies Ha uw Rimland a 1 Plate boundaries 5 Turf and Hawnae 19 I cum 7139 See Lessernmllleslnset mw nnl m g 39 quotj g a Virgin 39 9quotquot39i new 5 ea MEMO 55 9 with h mE MP Wmn a WW ssm gm mlquot mm mm humour quotf 39P39 m I mu sir17 wmm uwr mm mag it an A mm quota I a JANA my W Dan Mm rml u39 r 39F39 fir 339 quotMm liningmum 511 quotI39m3 mg fai my uquot li elm It uf Hm 394 r J 7 ELIk mmn um Belmn J l 139 5 Human cit MW BE may quot HWWEFR39 y rnbbvnri Sen nu 39 E39 ST Ii r r I K l r mhcd i alnml39 an r quot Hmouusfp 39 d risquot quot 7 a 3 rnmnnos I An er 5 9 6quot CUIW CMH39Hi r n F g MMWJ M mrunmm z I39m V r ff 39 EL39SNWADUH 7 f r 3 quot0 iiiml w ammw Ix x7 wars5 m f r v f m xquot 39 emf g 1am v m5 an JICA in Q I 4 x mm quotHQ mm 1 I COLUMEM 39 H x 7 1r quotquot z T r V Ii 100 E39ELIJIMglui un 9 fl llLTlJ illl39lt riom ails ATLANTIC E r Iquot Sr Miami We 0 C E H N 3 Huh 51 3quotquot m ranm H39lw39nb 1151 I 391h 1min l LE 1 An uil39139dllullil r J f39 sme39 7 A sudn 39 srumTrrawnEnM quotHEM Suba mum m as mun Mfrm ILEml nmmmll rinauelem signquot D 2m ml ik straws MID HEM 39 Etiolm39a 39 L Mam D m monument I I r Salllng terms 396 i I J md w m quotnameHim ElLE U l ON IM METERS A mm HmiiGaltmr ainiil 9 I 2er WI n dwa rd Le 9W3 rd Flmeaui39 5302000 5 39 ammo 51 mrb Mammunfia SeawLemll F 032031 I Fortdir Franeei lBelmv sea C F r r Lil b E ti H Le Dimm t llE39V E l I I U S i ci 7 cams LUCIA a SWIM an For m stirnun m 7 7 mems e mmcn umlnmsd ng um 3 Mn Bridgetown H 1 a Stu mrq 39quot O Another name for Islands excludlng Bahamas a Emilan Tetago w a 7 39he West I ndws MIL TURNED Mae wuuum 2011 Pearson Education Inc The final region of the New World 2012 44 million history of external control Learning Objectives Compare and contrast with Latin America Expand our collection of concepts and models Plantation agriculture Plantation America Brain drain Maroons Free trade zones Offshore banking Los Roques Islands Which terms do you know already 2 Introduction Bounda es Islands and Rimland Belize and the Guianas Cultural diversity of dominant cultures gt than in Latin AmeriCa more colonial powers influencing development of the region Caribbean region 26 countries and dependent territories Major influences Europeans then the United States Plantation agriculture important for exports High population densities lower in Guianas compare to Oceania Economies based on tourism offshore banking some manufacturing exports for example flowers other agricultural products level of development highly variable across region small size of territory can be problematic Which are highest and lowest in terms of economic and social development 3 Environmental Geography Paradise Undone Agriculture s legacy tropical rainforest clearance Sugarcane fields fuel for refining sugar timber for construction houses and other structures Currently Haiti is deforested 30 remains in Jamaica Dominican Republic Puerto Rico 25 Cuba 20 Managing the rimland forests Rimland coastal zone of I from Belize to South America 339 l more forested Less threatened more forested ar further into supports diverse wildlife the interior conservation is successful of the islands T 3 C O n i o n i a n d d I O I ropean Space Agency Center Kourou French often have conflicting goals Guiana This region Early European contact conflict zone 4 Environmental Issues Greater Antilles larger in size bulk of the population larger economic activity quot UNlllTIED STATES O Tropical forest 39 Tropical forest destroyed Guif of Mexico 39 V Crop wand W Haiti Severe defores tattoo and soul 715 Belize Conservation efforts erosion caused in port by on over COBSW PO I lutl D quotI are euidentby the creation reliance upon wood fuels forcooking Areas most vulnerable Ufa sanctuary for MGSSWE DOdmg in to Sea level rise monkeys by tom form ers near Belmopon and the creation of the rstjaguar preserve in southern Belize t more than 3000 peopie ATLANTFC OCEAN M xz lco Jamaica e i If 39 39 quot39iort u some in a quot Kingston Prime 39 Domingo 1 D 2 90 m M es WW 1 o zoo 4ooltllometers BELI ZIE a HONDURAS 39 7 3 Caribbean Sea L E 7 V r 39 Guiyalnat A new Food from Boo Vista v V 39139 Brazii to Georgetown Guyana opens EN ICA RRGUE quot up virgin forestin southern Guyana to EIL SHLM ADDR V loggers and miners 2CosrrA 39 n nice 39 i 1quot1 JP N m VENEZUELA PA C W I C OCEAN C OlLOMEIIA Boa Vista Communlty Baboon Sanctuary 1n Behze B My 2011 Pearson Education lnc 54 Island issue Po Note the ulation growth in confined 5 aces most populous 5 The Caribbean Climate Change Anticipated sea level rise moretha otherregions 3 to 10 feet in this century depends on model Bahamas most vulnerable loss of up to 30 land Belize French Guiana Guyana Suriname also affected 25 to 30 of peOpIe could be displaced Storm intensities tropical depressions likely to increase Greater variability in rainfall floods droughts Less biodiversity in forests coral reefs due to rapid climate change With sea level rise what amount of island remains On islands how do better acclimated species arrive 6 Climate and Vegetation tropical region arm all year typically abundant rainfall no freeze Tropical depressions sun s energy hurricanes Storms with heavy rains and fierce winds more than 74 miles per hour 120 kmhr On average 612 in region per year Consequences Destruction Hurricane Mitch 1998 killed at least 10000 left 25 million homeless deadliest tropical storm of the 20th of I l nlil u century 9 W quot n H u rri ca ne Iva n 2 004 d a m ag ed 85 of 39 quot structures in Grenada harmed tourism industry Grenada after Hurricane Ivan In emergencies where can island populations go 7 Note how WARM the region is throughout the year Climate Map of the Caribbean Havana FMIUJIISDH Annual Plain ll J l9 2M1 Pearson Educalion lm A amp B climates mainly A v r EUlEA lindenPrince 39Il39J l 25 m Hymn 5 39 E n 3quot r A 2a a a g E 60 39 1 E40 r g g 15 g ATLANTIC 5 40 7 IE llll E In E 1n L quot quot2 2n quot E 1 1 cf a quot quot II III 395 MJ FHAMJJASDHDD Jail 7 lg n Annual lPredp 431 39 Aw 5 1 F lull all M J Il 5 I M In r I Annual quotmom 513 Havanag a E I I V Aw AW J Ii I a Infi ISmjuan We Prince 2 l 39Belize City All Bullzgcm Caribbean Sea BEILIIE 15 r Y El 39 7 V gt V I I 139 2 T E I I a ES 2 a A all 3 E r 7 A a r E w t In 1 M l 39 7 39 u I M IAEuaI eIilu 3 Em E PACIFIC 39 gw 7 M s OCEAN 39 39 g g 39 39 N 739 Cayenne a I m lFFIEMIEHlEUIANA 25 A TROPICAL AND lHlUMlD culmTrEs w 7 i 7 7 7 7 m 39 so a gt 39M Mlns M E 39 O M Trolplcall wet climate W39Pm39l igl a 60s I 5 I 15 9 O Aw Tropical savalrlnalclilmate la gm E 10 39E 120 E B DEW CLIMATlES I 5 n r i V D O BWh 39llropicxalalndlswbtrolplcaldeselrt an n l 0 San Julian ma PUERTD HIIEO 15 39 39 3 3 1 20 a glz E 6 w z 2 IS g 3 E a All E E w 393 3 20 a E V 39 5 4039 l JIFMAHJHIS NI hm nml IPl ipL ECL E wwn Hm BAIHBHDOS 25 I h a 3quot r m 39639 E m 3 15 g All 7 7 E W Bndgemwln a 1n n I 5 an r r r 7 97 l1 ll FHIHJJES ll Annual Freeing SI Paramanilbo a 39 l a yemn e l 200 490 Mlles a 2m 4m Kilometelrs Precipltarllon int Aw means winter has a dry season Population and Settlement Densely Settled Islands and Rimland Frontiers i J a i Regional trend Slow demographic growth 12 Education urbanization preference for smaller families access to modern contraception Rise of HIVAIDS Infection rate 2x of North America gt1 of Caribbean population aged 15 to 49 has HIVAIDS Haiti Guyana Belize gt 2 o Where is settlement densest Puerto Rico 9 Population of the Caribbean Bermuda IUJKJ PEUPLE PER SQUARE KIILOMETER Fewerthan 5 C3 5 25 Guyana and the Bahamas quot have the region s highest CL 2550 G u f of HIVAIDS infection rate 3 50400 C MUFE than POPULATION 9 National capital MEXMO lFreep39urt gmmu Havana dMa tanzas IPiimar de IRi o dv iSa nta hm Cien uego Selected metropoiitarn a rears Camagi ley39 391 9igmn Lu Guantanamo Santiago etuba 39 39 51 7 30 r B H m W rt39 g ff iv 53 Bermuda and Barbados H o e A W 39t a quot391quot J 39 Santa v9 haverheregron mrghesr Belmo pm 39quotQ S Uquot Domingu popuiarfon densities with over 60012601303 persquare 4 memefer x FAXP Caribbean Sea 0 J J Fish of Spain French Guiana with only We peopre per square kifomerer has E the region s u39fowesrpopuiarron density PACIFIC r 2 O C E A N E Lax Gaargretown gt I Pa ra m a Cayenne 0 200 400 Mines K quot 39 t F q J 41 ll 0 200 400 Killome39ters gt RH ff 39 quot 1 Q1 Af 39 N quot x J 201 1 Pearson Education Inc Which are the Greater Antilles 1o Population and Settlement cont the economic migration of Caribbean population to locations around the globe for Work education etc As a region the Caribbean has one of the MNITElD STATES 3 That means for every 1000 people in the region 30 annually leave El c P lCiFlC i39 PWNAMA OCEAN Caribbean Diaspora lnlrareglionalmigration Recall El Salvador in Cash Flow Fever 11 The Rural Urban Continuum shaped settlement Farmlands owned by elite small plots for subsistence agriculture Little effort to develop commercial urban centers Caribbean cities Most ruraltourban migration just since 19603 Causes mechanization of agriculture industrialization rapid population growth I00Iouation Haiti only 47 x Architecture land use patterns especially in older colonial era core Region Variety of colonial powers 12 Rural Urban Continuum Overurbanization F H qg Decreased rural employment gt shanties Population of cities grew but formal economy did not provide sufficient jobs Consequences New migrants create like B s faveas Income needs met through informal sector activities ca Lack of cash urban amenities leads to local action pture amenities and including utilityelectrICIty channel them illegally w v r 39 39 gt V n 39 l Equot a I nah 3 I r i r w governmentbuilt apartment blocks reflect E 1 Shantytown in Jamaica note materials A 13 Colonialism s cultural effects disru ted indienous cultures practices PLUS new languages shift social hierarchies migrants institutions religion government law Designates a cultural rem extending from midway up coast of Brazil through the Guianas and the Caribbean into southeastern United States cane rice indigo cotton Characteristics dependent on African labor force single commodity sugar Why plantations New lands cash cropping for European markets 14 low cost of labor focus on cash generating crops very popular linked to history of export oriented industry and influence of Europe climate great for sugar Populations International migration flows Creating a NeoAfrica forced migration workers Beginning in the 16th century forced migration of Africans gt 10 million were brought to the Americas gt 2 million died en route Arrival of and elimination of indi enous peoples dramatically nded slaver shifted workers on contracted for a set period Largest Asian populations Suriname Guyana Trinidad Tobago More than onethird of Surinamese population is Asian see a lot of cultural blending here e f colonial governments and inde endent states 15 Transatlantic Slave Trade M EUROPE quot NORTH r J AMERICA quot 39 ATLANTiC OCEAN Transatlantic Slave Trade AFRICA Display shows aggregate 1 f f39 fana39g 39 flows i i Emu BilGiHlT UiF SENEGAMBM EilEEithllEi WEST 3mm i l 39 a 1 r iBIGHiTtlF 7 7 v o BIAFiElA ANGOLA 39 In many locations ASEma international slave trade ended before slavery AFRiIiCANi SLAVE TRADE IN THE AMiEIRiIICAS 1451 1870 G Sourceareas Plantation America TBv Total siaves tiraded j ATLANHC OCEAN 2011 Pearson Education Incquot Specific flows are linked to ports of call used by colonial trade ships 16 N eoAfrica in the Americas k Many short lived but others survived and helped African traditions and farming practices to survive Escaied slaves were sometimes integrated into Cultural legacy remains is strong some areas including parts of Jamaica and Suriname sometimes fought against colonial authority and were successful created peace agreements lt Peace negotiations between Maroons and British soldiers on the island of St Vincent 1773 Engraving from an original painting by Agostino Brunias about 1786 Courtesy of National Library of Jamaica ps are also located in portions of Central America 17 Cultural Diffusion Religious Practices UNITED STEII39E S Strongest influences of African religions in northeastern Brazil and the Caribbean widely practiced sometimes combined with Christianity to create syncretic reli gibri quot f African religion 5 Spread of in uence African Religious In uences Origins evident as cultural links Yoruba for example Recall the flow map of forced migration from Africa 18 Creolization and Caribbean identity blending of African European Amerindian cultural elements into a unique system Greater Antilles Z o of population I I I A Spanish 24 million r S aims I fb UL Wm H TL 51 N 2quot f iiiEn yum 05mm F h I I I I 5 fo 39 0 CE Er39 nguilidtul lr re n c I I I I I O n Merit Q g 4 41 SaballNETHJ Sl M m lgfuj39lm ll r 3 a 7399 i SLEmmtiusla l Wigwam I I I if suitHawaiians I 315 IDA I I Manrlsvnal39l u j I I cum Gwd ela pe lF J HAITI Area Of ins39Et map Caribbean DOWNKA r inmlicn g WWI495 5 5m u c J pug Hm tim39que FR 5 in 51 mam BELIIZlE w E 51 mum mt 39BARMDDE Caribbean 590 E HEHnnruzs GHQmm irquot lt l ratings TTRIlHIlD39ND 0 im Mlles 5 1 a A l TOBAGO 7 D 200 Kilometers Md Lrquot 39 5 a l r5 L 1 ll Lquot HV I I ifquot r l alumna mam OFFI EIIAIL rquot r OCEAN w l r 4 lil lLir llMGUAGlES N asquot t fllR39WE xgm Spanish I39xl rd quot ii quotMy 1 French v Rm xi937 7 1 f English Carlbbean Language Map Q Dutch 1 Flam f In addition 19 Music a carrier of culture Regional music Reggae calypso merengue rumba zouk Afro Caribbean Steel drums Music of Bob Marley re ects Jamaica s political situation international migration affeCted the mUSiC musical anthropologists can trace back rhythmsetC 39 h Carnival Drummer Haiti s Rara Music Musicologists examine rhythms composition instrumentation 20 US had a huge influence Geopolitical Framework f 3 f v39 Colonialism Neocolonialism and Independence United States declares it won t tolerate additional European involvement in Western Hemisphere Example of economic and olitical strate ies that United States has Often designed to protect US business interests sometimes at the expense of local autonomy and democracy United States mayits wishes Via US Marines 1921 wrote Strategies and Tactics of Small Wars US commonwealth Puerto Ricans are Independence movements seek secession from United States Re ected in protests on Vieques Island used as Naval bombing range Banana Wars US military actions occupation in Caribbean Central America from 1989 to 1934 start of FDR s Good Neighbor policy 21 US Involvement Regional Disputes Bermuda Ll KJ i898 1902 Miiirary occupation 39 i 952 Na mi bincknde n zoo nec Miles 0 200 400 Kiiiometers 1915 i 934 Miiitary occupation i994 USJOAS Miiitwy intervention to restore President Arisiide to power 2004 USJULN in terventipn to suppress p niiticni vioience Guif of Mexico i915 3924 Miiita39ry occupation i96i Miiiiaryineasion i 1965 Miiitnryintervennon Bay of Figs A TL A N Ti C Gnatemainis cinim to 1898 Miiirary Beiize as part ofirs bombardment O CEA N nerritnrygoes back 1 01359 quot r V CUBA J Dommlc 3320 Barrie fprViequesPuerto HMTI a REPUBLIC 1 lUSJ H39icnns foughi ro stapUS quot 39 39 e Navy bombing exercises L39iL on Vieques J Caribbean Sea El3925 N p H dig d 1857 1933 Miiifaryinvasion 39 39 qbqum fmn dime 1 government D vei39tnrpwn A Cuba disputes U5quot mpmmry fer its guanp this p5 ternmryis GUME MA base at Guardnamo in eastern disputed With Haiti 39 Ub a cum regards WWW Guyanafrnnic tensions g as being iiiegniiy occupied 39 GRENADA belween mmamd qu r Guyanese IE 7 r 39 Terrimrinidisputes c 39 g quotT f frquotF 39 inthe Guianas PiACiFiC gamma VENEZUELA 1 ncen n J 39 I GUYANA 19034979 Ownership of CanaiZone 3 r i989Miiitaryinvasion government E J awed by ven39e weua SURINEME 39 E r overthrow P namacan iretumm Dispnted between France and Suriname iFHJ g to iuii Panamanian connoi 1999 K Disputed between Guyana and Suriname K Spain ousted from Cuba Puerto Rico Guam Philippines Spanish Empire of the New World and Pacific ends 22 America s Backyard Independence compare to Latin America 0 Haiti slaves revolted against French independent 1804T US president Haiti not recognized by US until 1862 10 out Of first 16 1 3 quot 39 up flag1 7 r i 777 0 Today most of region is independent but not all presidents had slaves Cuba and the region s politics leneiene developed Cuba was a Spanish colony official independence in 1902 19505 Revolution brought Fidel Castro to power in 1959 ties with USSR established after US heightened imposes severs relations and imposes economic tensions response to asset confiscation Cuban Missile Crisis 1961 challenged US in region United States Cuba relations remained strained now thawing Most Cuban political refugees in US support a continued embargo 23 Geopolitical Framework cont Regional Integration From 1960s experimentation with regional trade associations to improve trade relations economy living standards Caribbean Community and Common Market CARICOM proposed and gtgt creation of Caribbean Development Bank 15 full 5 associate members initially former English colonies Important current issue Continued viability in light of climate change predictions V Caribbean islands face severe Q can save consequences when sea level rises 24 export oriented industrialization Economic and Social Development i From Cane Fields to Cruise Ships e shift towards From elds to factorles and resorts service 00 Of Historical link to world economy through location f offshore banking assembly plants now more important Crucial to the economic history of the Caribbean Importance of sugarcane has declined somewhat Since 1990 Cuban sugarcane harvest has declined by 50 percent 39 led to economic hardships Maj or exporters are in Latin America not Caribbean 0 Parts of Lesser Antilles rely on banana exports Sales depend on trade agreements consumer whims Special agreements supported exports to specific markets EU Attempts to diversity away from narrow export ranges Foreign tourism volume is affected by the economic situation of tourists home countries 25 difficult because economic decline tension like 911 or unemployment can affect it dirty money quotgt Clea money trafficking prostitution other organized crime cleaned by the bank Economic Social Development cont low cost labor low taxes Free trade zones FT Zs duty free tax exempt industrial parks developed to attract foreign corporations Do companies benefit more than host countries Spinoff Q 0 Assembly plants usually located in or near major cities labor pool 0 Offers specialized services confidential taxexempt Localities can make money from corporate registration fees rather than taX on corporations Bahamas ranked 3rd largest banking center in 1976 now 15th Cayman Islands Bermuda and others also important 0 Good proximity to United States 0 Washing money illegal monies laundered illicit drugs hide money and not be 0 Online gambling is newest service in the region taxed on it Banking gambling involve international flows Will external governments increase regulation over these 26 Driven Economic Development Cuba early Caribbean tourist destination ows from US affected by 1959 revolution 1961 US travel ban embargo redevelopment since its 1991 economic crisis 7 with EuropeanCanadian companies currently 2 million tourists per year Five islands 70 of 14 million tourists 1999 Puerto Rico Bahamas Dominican Republic Jamaica Cuba s m um uuuu nu Difference between gross receipts and the amount of money that remains in local economy Corporate headquarters usually outside the region profits may ow out of the host country shareholders other investment opportunities From 1930s to revolution Cuba was a playground for Eastern US Casino gambling slot machines nightclubs prostitution racetrack betting with Mob involvement Social Development Overall social development measures show improvement increases in life expectancy etc but Haiti remains impoverished High literacy in Cuba Englishspeaking areas a large percentage of the besteducated people leave the region Jamaica Haiti 80 of college educated work outside home country Status Of women no country in the world where Many men leave home for seasonal work WOmen are better off than men Women are responsible for much but generally have lower social status than men Laborrelated migration Intraregional seasonal migration is traditional Remittances Important for this region and Latin America Remittances come from diaspora those who dispersed from home 28 Summary aribbean is than other developing regions apparent in the economic urban systems was key to Euro ean interest no and are major areas of growth 39 For islands and their cities Water quality quantity sewage and solid waste disposal are issues these are public health concerns and may affect tourism development quot Cruise ships in Nassau quot Coastal French Guiana 29
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