Psych119F Wk10 Notes
Psych119F Wk10 Notes Psychology 119F
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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Mayeda on Monday March 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 119F at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Blair in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 161 views. For similar materials see Neural Basis of Behavior in Psychlogy at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 03/09/15
Midterm 2 in class Wed Mar 11 Office hours after class on Monday March 9 Review session on Tuesday March 10 in Franz 2258A from 46 pm No office hours will be held after the exam on Wednesday or on Friday March 13 Written Final Exam Thursday March 19 Ascending theta pathways target entorhinal cortex where grid cells are found and hippocampus where place cells are found 3 I in Entorhinal 1 Cortex v 39An teri r Mi 39 r f he J 39 39 77 l 0 5 T u r 39 r J r 1 rm I I 7 I K A 39 I 39 k D 39 I 39 J 777 v a 71 air Mquot 1 WR39 ate histogram of a theta cell aaznng Elna E i In n Schaeffer Collaterals Subiculum Pyramidal Cells Distributed place cells CA1 Pyramidal Cells Mossy Temporo ammonal Medial CA3 Fibers Dentate Pathway Entorhinal Pyramidal Granule CGHS 39 Cortex Cells Sparse place cells Intermediate place cells Grid cells Medial Septum VVVV Theta rhythm Perforant Path Do grid cells and place cells derive their locationspecific firing by detecting synchrony among theta cells grid cells detect from synchrony of just a couple of theta cells 25 cms 20 cm I I Grid cell data from Hafting et al 2008 e g E E 3 4E I H i 2 z 2 a 2 E quot 339 E S E S 1 g3 2 quot1i5l39il1 3939 Ni V lvllllw quotl lll quoth V v V grid 339 cell Place cell data from Foster amp Wilson 2008 l O Firing Rate Hz 5 O l l Position Could place cells be formed from grid cells place cells might get formed by grills cells get lots of input from grid cells Dorsal MEC grid cell H39PPOCBmPal place cell Ventral MEC fj a A grid cell I 3 At any given location in the environment some grid cells will fire and others will be silent Some theories have proposed that place cells might derive their location specific tuning properties by firing only when specific subsets of grid cells are active many diff locations are places where grid cell is active grid cells lots of locations where fire or don t fire place cells only one location where cell fires eg is it a pencil definitivefinal FEATURE CELLS OBJECT CELLS Do you hold it when you use it 2 PencH Is it bigger thana gt 7 A loaf of bread Do most people use it daily 39 Spatial locations are not the only kind of information that could be encoded via this strategy Places to facesand beyond place electrodes in human brains for epileptic patients and were able to test for different stimuli 4 Quiroga et al Nature 43510367 2005 found that neurons in the human a hippocampus can respond to speci c m eg Jennifer Aniston or buildings eg Sydney Opera house 0 Such neurons often responded not only L L L L to pictures of the stimulus as shown at quot J quot left for a Jennifer Aniston cell but also to verbal cues such as the words Jennifer Aniston or Sydney Opera n HOUSE Could these human hippocampal neurons represent people and places face cells and place cells as combinations of features encoded by neurons similar to grid cells FEATURE CELLS OBJECT CELLS Is it 5 person Jennifer Aniston Is it a building Is it a female Does it bringjoy to people 39 Schaeffer Collaterals Subiculum Pyramidal Cells r Temporo ammonal Medial Distributed place cells CA1 Pyramidal Cells Mossy Fibers CA3 De ntate Pyramidal Granule Ces Entorhinal Cells Cortex 3 Hi Sparse place cells 3 0 Intermediate Grid ces place cells Lesion and inactivation I Perforant Path experiments can be carried out to test theories about A I how place and grid cells are formed Theta rhythm Abolishing hippocampal theta by septal inactivation oscillations are theta rhythm when turn it off with drug it stops but restart after drug wears off 39 Baseline Septal inactivation Septal inactivation Remvery I I vi l l fl lllhl39 W 39l39 quot939 ll 39 lllll llll WM WM quotllWifle 200 ms familiar room novel room i 39l i ii 39 39 i x a t h I 8 3939 I Ll l1 i t 39 i ll ii iii illquot l ll rrl little ii Hippocampus MEC Brandon et al 2014 Neuron Volume 82 Issue 4789 796 Theta inputs to grid and place cells can be temporarily quotturned off by infusing drugs into the medial septum This temporarily inactivates the theta projection from medial septum to hippocampus amp entorhinal cortex During septal inactivation theta rhythm temporarily disappears from the EEG in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex then reappears after recovery from the drug Spatial rectoy autocmrelation D 391 21V 9 15h Spatid autoc orrdazicn BOSC39IHO Sub Medial Septum rr 1247 p an a o E 8 U a I Rate 39nco T39Jjeclory A x J I g39idross 219 sampled 39n Q25 3 Jl z m7 1l 2 97 um Inactivation 39r39 02 3 25l I J H 39 l39z 152 36 Hour Recovery rd39Icss 4322 W 374 p Ediquot 39r39 1231 914 24 Hour Recovery n 14347 p sin7 n39 23V 3 ill1 M Reprinted from Brandon et al 2011 grown 046 Theta inputs to grid and place cells can be quotturned of by infusing drugs into the medial septum This temporarily inactivates the projection from medial septum to entorhinal cortex after loss of theta grid cells disappear too temporarily grid cells formed out of theta When thIs IS done grid cells in the entorhinal cortex are severely disrupted Brandon et al 2011 Koenig et al 2011 Inactivating medial septum reduces place cell firing rates but spares spatial tuning in a familiar environment place cells also formed by detect theta rhythm but magma 3 they do not disai oear with theta T E HIF F EK MlF UE EM lELlLE 951 Mg n L rat quot L in I39I39JII II I Ei I39D a tins Before inactivation inact reCOVerV Reprinted from Koenig et al 2011 Place cell stability and remapping are spared in both familiar and novel environments 6 h A Baseline Septal Inactivation recovery 24 h recovery F7 Spatial tuning is preserved not only in a familiar F but 2 Fsl gr V3 7 39 also in a novel N environment that the rat is exposed to for the first time during the inactivation and place cell remapping still occurs between the F and N environments When the rat is returned to the previously novel environment after recovery from inactivation place cells retain the same firing fields 39 they showed during inactivation so they are still 0 8 Q 8 A 3 TI M H H v J E mamas 3 I I able to maintain stable place fields across repeated visits to both environments 5 Eg i Q S o o 1 3305 s 0 a EEE gamete 1 tl quot A f D l 3151 3 I 1 EE quot C It 1062 quot a L 39 051 130 2397 C 6 Brandon et al 2014 Neuron Volume 82 Issue 4789 796 spatial code and temporal code don t destroy each other even without temporal code of theta rhythm spatial code for place cells the same but temporal code is still important The grid cell model is supported by the data but the place cell model is not place cells firing rate code is not disrupted by absence of theta rhythm firing rate not formed by theta 25 cms 20 cm rhythm Grid cell data from Hafting et al 2008 e g E L 4 i 2 z 2 E it I H i I H 39 t 93 a 5m 5 5 5 5 1 I qIII39IIIJII III39L LIIul39lquot 39Iquotquot3939H I39 III M y 4 w 21 t a llll rill r v r i l grid 1 cell Place cell data from Foster amp Wilson 2008 A 20 y s 3 2 quot 5 10 o A E LT vvvaV Vvv 39t v39VVVVVVVv 0 A v V v V pIace POSIth cell The data also does not support models that propose place cells are formed from grid cells Schaeffer Collaterals Subiculum Pyramidal Cells Distributed place cells CA1 Pyramidal Cells V Mossy Temporoammonal Medial Fibers Dentate pathway Entorhinal Granule Cells 39 Cortex A O o O 3 0 Sparse place cells Intermediate place cells Grid cells Medial Perforant Path Septum put toxin into hippocampus obliterate CA3 but keep CA1 intaCt remember when took away Theta rh thm medial septum place cells ok to y fire normally but not grid cells CA1 place cells remain intact after destruction of CA3 spatial firing of place cells intact but behavior impairedfiring normal but rat unable to use information gig3 sg fg1172533 gagfjf yj impaired in morris maze my 3 39i 3 39 l 9 quot 39 t 0 I 39 39 r t lt v a c I 39 n from Brun et al 2002 Science 296 2243 Distributed place cells CA1 Pyramidal Cells Schaeffer Subiculum Collaterals I Pyramidal Cells Temporo ammonal pathway I Mossy Fibers Dentate Granule Cells Sparse place cells CA3 Pyramidal Cells Intermediate place cells Grid cells Medial Perforant Path Septum VVVV Theta rhythm CA1 place cells convey only slightly less spatial information after entorhinal lesions oillllllll In In 10 I I I I I Information density bitsspike 05 l a l n l I l l l I IIIIIIIIIIII A 823 22200 from Brun et al 2008 Neuron 57290 Distributed place cells Schaeffer Subiculum Collaterals Pyramidal Cells r CA3 Mossy Temporo ammonal Medial P d I F39bers Dentate Entorhinal Yraml a Granule Cells Cortex Cells O n B i hzo Sparse place cells 3 0 Intermediate Grid cells place cells place cells don t need grid cells but do grid cells need place cells kind of grid cells at least need hippocampus grid cells made of place cells Medial Septum VVVV Theta rhythm Perforant Path Grid cells are disrupted by hippocampal inactivation Grid cells lose their spatial tuning when the hippocampus is inactivatedbut is this from the loss of place or theta cells J USCl mcI 620 min Place cells in hippocampus of crawling bats Each cell fires at one or two preferred locations Different cells have different preferred locations evenly distributed throughout the environment Text 270 cm 2 Place cell recording in flying Bat flies in a room containing an artficial tree at the center He flies around the tree to receive rewards from baited branches bats Example of bat flight trajectory fing Bat wears a headstage holding electrodes and wireless transmitters 3D place cells in bats Top view XY Side view YZ Front view XZ rate map in 3D Location specificity is preserved in cross sections through all angles 3D path plots and firing rate maps show that this hippocampal neuron fires in a specific 3D location in 3D enviro 3D place cells As in rats different place cells prefer to fire in different locations K 10 Hz J 6H2 I l l III L t 1 1 7 p I t A Bat 1 n 10 place cells Ten place cells recorded from the same bat had different preferred firing N locations Hippocampal theta is transient in bats d LFP theta rhythm d E I b f WANNA appears on y In re 339 1s 39 4 25Hz bouts lasting 1 second M ax e There IS no prominent Min theta peak in the LFP power spectrum during S39eep Behav sleep or behavior 481420 4814 20 Frequency Hz Grid cells in IVIEC of crawling bats Adjacent cells had similar spacing amp orientation but differing spatial phase Dorsoventral gradient of spacings Some grid cells were directionally modulated others not Firing rates were modulated by running speed Entorhinal theta is transient in bats c Entorhinal theta also occurs in brief bouts jk Grid cell firing is present even when theta is absent suggesting that theta is not required for grid cell firing disproves earlier hypothesis Full writlam mm It Full With ui bbwt EEEEIDI EEH lbout 4 only gl Ill L EEEElIDFII Ell b utf r r tan 1161 156 only Do place and grid cells without theta in bats disprove oscillatory interference models Possible explanations Bat quotplace cells are not the same kind of neuron as rodent place cells bat place cells have not been extensively tested for properties like cue control remapping etc Oscillatory interference occurs at a different frequency in bats not theta frequency The oscillatory interference frequency is not constant in bats but instead changes with time 1 Hz 2 Hz 8 Hz HZ etc maybe frequency is not fixed
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