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by: Coco Chen

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# units141516.pdf astro100-02 Exploring the Universe

Coco Chen
UMass
GPA 3.567
Exploring the Universe
Daniel Wang

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COURSE
Exploring the Universe
PROF.
Daniel Wang
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
4
WORDS
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Astronomy

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Coco Chen on Monday March 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to astro100-02 Exploring the Universe at University of Massachusetts taught by Daniel Wang in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 156 views. For similar materials see Exploring the Universe in Astronomy at University of Massachusetts.

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Date Created: 03/09/15
Unit 14 Astronomical Motion Inertia Mass and Force Since Aristotle it was believed that without some continuing application of power all objects would come to rest Galileo G demonstrated weight dropped from Leaning Tower of Pisa allows him to recognize several properties of motion 1st law of motion was deduced by Galileo from the experiment on the manner in which bodies move and fall A complete understanding was achieved by Isaac Newton 16421727 He did not only deduced Gravity but he also invented Calculus Inertia central to laws of motions the tendency of a body at rest to remain at rest and of a body in motion to keep moving in a straight line at a constant speed ex We are exposed to inertia everyday in life as When we apply brake of our car suddenly sitting standing in a bustrain we measure an inertia by an object s mass Newton s First Law of Motion The Law of Inertia A body continues in a state of rest or in uniform motion in a straight line at a constant speed unless made to change that state by forces acting on it Inertia cause an object to resist changes in either soeed or direction A body maintains a constant velocity unless forces act on it A spacecraft a planet or an entire galaxy will continue to move through space along a straight line at a constant speed unless some force anything that can cause a body to change velocity acts Upon it There are also times times that there s not net force when the combination of all forces cancel out An example would be a book resting on a table gravity pulls the book down so the book applies force on the table but the reaction force equal but opposite force cancel it out Mass a property of matter Weight a force on an object key points 0 bodies resist change to their state of motion because of their inertia o the amount of inertia of an object is given by its mass which is measured in kg 0 the term velocity is used to specify a speed in a particular direction 0 Newton s 1st law a body maintains a constant velocity unless forces act on it law of inertia o anything that causes an object to change speed or direction is a force a planet on a curved orbit must be experiencing a force mass is a property indicating the amount of matter in an object weight depends on both the mass of an object and the forces that are acting upon it Unit 15 Force Acceleration and Interaction Acceleration changes in motion motion of an object is a change in its position which we characterize both by the direction of the object and by its speed Vector expressed in arrows a quantity that has both a size and a direction lfthe speed and direction of an object remain the same we would say it has a constant velocity But if it has a change in either direction or speed we say it has a change in velocity And a change during a period of time or defined as Acceleration Basically any change in speed is acceleration Acceleration m secquot2 change in velocity change in time Example suppose a car was going 15m sec southward along a straight road If the car increases its speed 30 msec over 3 sec we could say that the change of velocity 30msec 15msec 15msec and the change in time 3 sec acceleration 15msec 5m secquot2 3 sec Newton39s Second Law of Motion F m x a The force F acting on an object equals the product of its acceleration a and mass m a F m The amount of acceleration a that a body will experience is equal to the force F applied divided by the body39s mass m acceleration grows proportionally to the force applied m Fa Newton s Third Law of Motion law of actionreaction III when two bodies interact they create equal and opposite forces on each other However when one body has a smaller mass than the other the one with smaller mass moves faster according to second law Unit 16 The Universal Law of Gravity Newton saw apple falling from a tree he realizes there s gravity Law of gravity Every mass exerts a force of attraction on every other mass The strength of the force is directly proportional to the product of the masses divided by the square of the distance between them FG G M x m G is a constant factor M and m in kg cl in meter FG in newton dquot2 G 667 x 10quot11 newtons metersquot2 kgquot2 1 newton 1 kg x msecquot2 If either mass of the two increases and other factors remain constant the force increases by the same amount If the distance between the 2 masses is 2x the gravitational force is decreased by a factor of 4 lnverse square proportionality Gravity accelerates on objects similar as they were being dropped on Earth or Moon even though they have different mass Galileo Earth does pull with a larger force than larger mass we can use Newton s second law to calculate the acceleration due to the Earth s gravity g FGGme GM m m x Rquot2 Rquot2 key points 0 an object is falling but it has a large enough sideways velocity to never hit the surface of the object it is orbiting gravity is a pull felt between all objects with mass the force of gravity between 2 bodies is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them 0 objects near the surface of the Earth all accelerate downward at the same rate one g about 98 msecquot2 o the surface gravity felt on other bodies such as the Moon differs from that on the Ea h o the force of gravity grows weaker with distance but it never drops to zero

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