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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Helen Shymanski on Tuesday March 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY-P 304 at Indiana University taught by Rydell in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 03/10/15
Chapter 9 Group Processes Who Do People Join Groups 1 91 Groups have a number of bene ts They are an important part of our identity helping us de ne who we are and are a source of social norms the explicit or implicit rules de ning what acceptable behavior is Group Three or more people who interact and are independent in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to in uence each other There is a strong need to belong to social groups as well as a need to feel distinctive from those who are not members of the group Groups de ne who we are by resolving ambiguity The need to belong to groups may be innate Groups also serve as a source of information about the social world and are an important part of our social identities People are sensitive to rejection from groups and do what they can to avoid it Groups also make people feel distinctive from members of other groups The Composition and Functions of Groups 1 2 Social Roles shared expectations in a group about how particular people are supposed to behave Groups tend to consist of homogeneous members in part because groups have social norms that people are expected to obey a People tend to be alike in age sex beliefs and opinions b Social norms are powerful in determining our behavior These norms change from culture to culture c To violate the norms could lead to being shunned or expelled from group Groups have wellde ned social roles shared expectations about how people are supposed to behave People can get so far into a social role that their personal identities and personalities get lost Social roles are shaped by our culture Gender roles have changed in the United States in that last few decades and how womenmen are portrayed in the media a Zimbardo Experiment quotMock Prison Experimentquot b This experiment showed how quickly one can assume a role There were guards and prisoners that were out tted in the traditional situation and out ts of each The experiment ended after 6 days because of the enormous impact it had on the participants making it too dangers to continue People got so far into their roles that their personal identities were lost c quotYou start looking at these people as ess than human and you start doing things to 39em that you would never dream ofquot Group cohesiveness qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking between members is another important property of groups that in uences the group39s performance Group Cohesiveness Qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking between numbers Individual Behavior in a Group Setting 1 quotMere social contact begetsa stimulation of the animal spirit that heightens the ef cacy of each individual workmanquot Karl Marx 2 Social Facilitation The tendency for people to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluated aWhen people39s individual efforts on a task can be evaluated the mere presence of others leads to social facilitation their performance is enhanced on simple tasks but impaired on complex tasks LCockroaches and Social Facilitation cn the maze cockroaches were to go from the starting point down the runway away from the light This was considered a simple tasks The cockroaches were faster when other roaches were watching than when they were alone They were then given a more dif cult maze It took the roaches longer to solve when other roaches were watching than when they were alone LClassroom LPeople do better on a welllearned task when in the presence of others than when they are alone 3 Social Loa ng The tendency for people to relax when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance cannot be evaluated such that they do worse on simple tasks but better on complex tasks aWhen people39s individual efforts can39t be evaluated the mere presence of others leads to relaxation and social loa ng Performance is impaired on simple tasks but enhanced on complex tasks LSocial loa ng is more prevalent among men than women and more prevalent in Western than Asian cultures 4 Deindividuation The loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people can39t be identi ed such as when they are in a crowd a The mere presence of others can also lead to deindividuation which is the loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people are in crowds 5 The presence of others can lead to social facilitation or social loa ng The two are differentiated by the following three factors a Evaluation b Arousal c Complexity of Task Group Decisions Are Two or More Heads Better Than One 1 Groups make better decisions than individuals if they are good at pooling ideas and listening to the expert members of the group Often process loss occurs which is any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good decision making Groups often focus on the information they have in common and fail to share unique information Cohesive groups are prone to groupthink which occurs when maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity becomes the more important issue than considering the facts in a realistic manner Process Loss Any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving Transactive Memory the combined memory of two people that is more ef cient than the memory of either individual Groupthink A kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner a Antecedents of GroupThink the group is highly cohesive group isolation a directive leader high stress and poor decisionmaking procedures b Symptoms of GroupThink illusion of invulnerability belief in the moral correctness of the group stereotyped views of outgroup self censorship direct pressure on dissenters to conform illusion of unanimity and mindguards c Defective Decision Making Incomplete survey of alternatives failure to examine risks of the favored alternative poor information search failure to develop contingency plans i Bay of Pigs with President Kennedy ii Operation Iraqi Freedom with President Bush Avoiding GroupThink a Remain impartial seek outside opinions create subgroups and seek anonymous opinions Group polarization causes groups to make more extreme decisions in the direction toward which its members were initially leaning these group decisions can be more risky or more cautious depending ono which attitude is valued in the group a Group Polarization The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of its members Little support for Great Person Theoryargues that good leadership is a matter of having the right personality traits Leadership is a matter of having the right personality traits Leaders do adopt speci c kinds of leadership styles such as transactional or transformational Leadership effectiveness is a function of both the kind of person a leader is and the nature of the work situation a Great Person Theory The idea that certain key personality traits make a person a good leader regardless of the situation b Women as Leaders in America i Women are still underrepresented in leadership positions Female leaders have a glass cliff where they are put in charge of high risk situations where the likelihood to fail is extremely high In addition there is a double blind for women leaders if they conform to societal expectations about how they ought to behave by being warm and communal they are often perceived as having low leadership potential If they succeed in attaining a leadership position and act in ways that leaders are expected to act they are often perceived negatively for not quotacting like a woman shouldquot 8 Types of Leadership a Transactional Leaders Leaders who set clear shortterm goals and reward people who meet them b TaskOriented Leader A leader who is concerned more with getting the job done than with workers feelings and relationships c RelationshipOriented Leader A leader who is concerned more with workers feelings and relationships d Transformational Leaders Leaders who inspire followers to focus on common longterm goals 9 Contingency Theory of Leadership The idea that leadership effectiveness depends both on how taskoriented or relationshiporiented the leader is and on the amount of control and in uence the leader has over the group Con ict and Cooperation 1 Social dilemmas occur when the most bene cial action for an individual will 4 if chosen by most people have harmful effects on everyone A commonly studied social dilemma is the prisoner39s dilemma in which two people must decide whether to look out for only their own interests or for their partner39s interests as well Creating trust is crucial in solving this kind of con ict a Social Dilemma A con ict in which the most bene cial action for an individual will if chosen by most people have harmful effects on everyone Using threats tends to escalate a situation rather than help resolve the situation Communication resolves con ict only when it promotes trust a TitforTat Strategy A means of encouraging cooperation by at rst acting cooperatively but then always responding the way your opponent did cooperatively or competitively on the previous trial When two sides are negotiating and bargaining it is important to look for an integrative solution whereby each side concedes the most on issues that are unimportant to it but are very important to its adversary a Integrative Solution A solution to a con ict whereby the parties make tradeoffs on issues according to their different interests each side concedes the most on issues that are unimportant to it but important to the other side b Negotiation A form of communication between opposing sides in a con ict in which offers and counteroffers are made and a solution occurs only when both parties agree
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