Social Psych - Chapter 7 Persuasion
Social Psych - Chapter 7 Persuasion Psych 3430-02
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Notetaker on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3430-02 at Tulane University taught by Mrs. O'Brien in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Intro To Social Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
Persuasion 22516 Persuasion process by which a message induced change in beliefs attitudes or behaviors Deliberate conscious intentional Who Persuades Parents Professors Government Media Businesses Friends Mere exposure effect the more often we see something the more we like it Whv Persuade Government uses propaganda to persuade people to do things propaganda posters during World War II encouraged women to get to work in the Rosy the Riveter poster Can be used for good or bad Model of Persuasion Elaboration Likelihood model ELM Petty and Cacioppo interested in when we get a message what the likelihood is that we elaborate think on it 2 Routes of persuasion 1 Central route elaborate on persuasive messages 0 High effort processing have to be able and willing to think clearly 0 Focuses on the content of the message 2 Peripheral route 0 Low effort processing happens automatically 0 Focuses on the cues of the message to tell us if the argument is good Who is delivering the message How do I feel Central vs Peripheral Models of Persuasion Depends on motivation and ability 0 Motivation how much we want to process and are willing to put in effort 0 Ability how much we know about a topic how focused we are We are more willing to process things if they are relevant to us Low motivation or low ability peripheral route High motivation and high ability central route Color Persuasion video Color has an in uence on what people see how they feel Can in uence mood behavior and what we buy Motivation Depends on personal relevance audience personality Audience personality whether people have high needs for cognition people who like to think solve problems 0 People who are high in cognition are more likely to be persuaded through the central route 0 People who are low in cognition are more likely to be persuaded through the peripheral route Ability We have 2 systems one for thinking automatically and one for careful thinking Factors that in uence ability 0 Limited mental resources if we are tired or distracted 0 Complex message may or may not need prior knowledge to analyze a message For these factors use peripheral cues Heuristics are involved in these cases heuristics rule of thumb automatic thinking 0 Includes experts can be trusted used when there is an ad for medicine and a doctor is talking about it Yale Model of Persuasion 1940s1950 s Interested in 0 communicator variablessource variables WHO is delivering the message 0 message variables WHAT the actual message is 0 audience variables TO WHOM is being persuaded 0 channel variables by WHAT MEANS is the message being delivered intemet face to face over the phone communicator is said to be credible when he is perceived as both an expert and trustworthy Communicator Variables credibility 0 expertise knowledge intelligence 0 trustworthiness what are people motivated by Do they have the right motivation I assumes that people are selfinterested which makes them less trustworthy 0 likability we are more persuaded by people who we like 0 similarity we are more persuaded by people similar to us using children in an ad for a children s product 0 attractiveness we are more persuaded by attractive people why advertisements have good looking people in them Limits of Communicator Variables sleeper effect effect of a message becomes stronger over time 0 may remember an argument but not who made the argument Message Content messages can either appeal to reason or emotion depends on the audience appeal to emotions 0 positive mood I peripheral processing people who are in a good mood may not want to think as much so they will just accept the message fear arousing messages most effective when they offer a protective strategy 0 fear appeal scare people and then give a way to not have that scary thing happen Extreme Forms of Persuasion cult example work to create an us and them a good and bad so that people are motivated to stay with the good processes cults use to recruit people 0 targeting vulnerable people providing them with things they may otherwise not have the means to get 0 offer a sense of belonging and community 0 foot in the door effect make a small request and then come back with a larger request ask someone to sign a petition and then ask them for a donation 0 charismatic leaders people are drawn to people who profess to know the truth providing easy answers to complex ideas 0 isolation find people who are alone encourage people to cut of ties with people outside the cult these forms of persuasion are not always used in bad situations can be used for good Resisting Change forewarning if you know someone is going to try and persuade you you are better at resisting the persuasive message will think of a counterargument or response High School study looking at forewarning tried to convince people that it is a good idea to raise the legal driving age researchers had participants watch a video about why it is a good idea to raise the legal driving age participants were placed in 3 conditions 0 first group participants were given a long warning about how the video was going to try and persuade them 0 second group participants were given a short warning about how the video was going to try and persuade them 0 control group participants were given now warning before watching the video results found that knowing that persuasion was coming made people less likely to change their opinion as a result of the video Resisting Change distraction disarms counter arguing attitude inoculation vaccine metaphor for attitudes 0 expose to weak attitude expose to weak virus 0 increase resistance to persuasion increase resistance to disease 0 when you are being persuaded you will have built up a counter argument motivational response psychological state occurring when freedom is threatened desire to protect freedom 0 people want to feel like they have control and choice 0 may result in a change in the opposite direction being told that someone cant do something under any circumstances may make them do it just because they were told they can t Bathroom Graffiti Study wanted to see when people were most likely to graffiti put up signs in the bathroom 0 more extreme sign said Do Not Write on These Walls Under Any Circumstance 0 less extreme sign sign said Please Do Not Write on These Walls results found that the more extreme message made people want to graffiti more than the less extreme message Subliminal Persuasion subliminal message word or image that is not consciously perceived 0 image has to be slow enough for subconscious but fast enough that the conscious wont notice 0 believed to in uence people s judgments whether they realize it or not 2000 Election Al Gore Campaign 0 the word RATS had been superimposed on the screen during an Al Gore Campaign ad 0 supposed to make people associate rats with Al Gore subliminal vs supraliminal 0 supraliminal won t see the message if we aren t aware but if we directed our attention than we could see the message 0 subliminal can t consciously see the message even if we direct our attention Subliminal Primes Study Strahan Spencer Zanna interested to see how priming affected people there were 2 groups of participants 0 thirsty 0 not thirsty had them watch words ash on a screen subliminally 0 one group saw words associated with thirst parched dessert water 0 second group control group saw neutral words after they watched the words offer them a glass of water to see how much they drank results found that people who were thirsty and saw the thirst primes drank more water Subliminal Advertising Less Effective Outside of the Lab subliminal effects require 0 motivation receptive state 0 correct lighting 0 correct distance from image 0 fixation on focal point have to be looking in exactly the right area 0 lack of distraction all these effects are almost impossible to control outside of the lab
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