Nutrition 101 Chapter 4 Notes
Nutrition 101 Chapter 4 Notes Nutrition 101
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Counce on Tuesday March 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Nutrition 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Lori Greene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views.
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Date Created: 03/10/15
Rachel Counce Nutrition Chapter 4 Carbohydrates Carbohydrate structures Monosaccharides 0 Single sugars 0 Simple carbohydrates Disaccharides 0 Pairs of monosaccharides 0 Simple carbohydrates Polysaccharides 0 Large 0 Chains of monosaccharides 0 Complex carbohydrates H J H C l LO l I Monosaccharides 3 1 Glucose 2 Fructose 3 Galactose O C6H1206 0 0 Each differs in their arrangement of atoms OI l H l Glucose Energy source for all cells One of the two sugars monosaccharides in every disaccharide Polysaccharides are made of glucose Mild sweet avor 6sided ring Fructose Intensely sweet avor Occurs naturally in fruit and honey 5sided ring Galactose Does not have a sweet avor 6sided ring Position of the hydroxyl group differs from glucose Disaccharides 3 1 Maltose o Glucose Glucose CH DH O H Exam 2 cupH HO Of 0 1 Rachel Counce Exam 2 O Produced whenever starch breaks down 2 Sucrose O Glucose Fructose O Sweetest 3 Lactose O Glucose Galactose O Carbohydrate in milk ie milk sugar O Contributes half of energy in milk Hydrolysis Chemical reaction breaks a disaccharide into two monosaccharides Molecule of water H20 splits to provide Hydrogen and OH Commonly occurs during digestion Bond oen br k CH2OH CH20H CHQOH CH2OH O O O O OH OH 5 OH OH HO OH HO OH HO OH O OH OH OH OH Water H OH f Bond broken Learning 2013 c Zecgage Maltose gt Glucose glucose The disaccharide maltose splits into two glucose molecules with H added to one and OH to the other from the water molecule Condensation Chemical reaction that links monosaccharides Hydroxyl group OH and a hydrogen atom combine to form water CHZOH CHZOH CHZOH CHZOH O O O O gt HO OH OH H O OH OH HO OH OH OH 2 O S OH Y OH OH OH H20 H20 33 Water Water E O Glucose glucose gt Maltose An OH group from one glucose and The two glucose molecules bond an H atom from another glucose together with a single O atom to form combine to create a molecule of H20 the disaccharide maltose Rachel Counce Exam 2 Polysaccharides 3 Glycogen Storage form of energy in the body 0 13 stored in the liver 0 23 stored in muscle cells Built of glucose units Branched chains Food is not a good source of glycogen Starch Storage form of energy in plants Built of glucose units 0 Branched and unbranched chains Grains are the best source of starch 0 Rice corn rye barley oats legumes and starchy vegetables Provides structure in stems trunks roots leaves and skins of plants thus found in all plant foods 0 Vegetables fruits whole grains legumes Built of monosaccharides and other carbohydrate derivatives Digestive enzymes cannot break down bonds between fibers monosaccharides Fibers pass through the body undigested Soluble fibers Dissolve in water viscous form gels and fermentable digested by bacteria in the colon o Oats barley legumes and citrus fruits Research shows they reduce cholesterol and glucose levels Insoluble fibers Do not dissolve in water nonviscous and less readily fermentable o Bran and vegetables Promote bowel movements and alleviate constipation Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption Mouth Salivary enzyme amylase hydrolyzes starch into smaller molecules shorter polysaccharides or maltose Stomach No new enzymes are introduced to break down CHO Salivary amylase diminishes as stomach acid and protein digesting enzymes break it down 0 Fiber may promote satiety feeling of being full Rachel Counce Exam 2 Small Intestine Pancreatic amylase continues breaking down polysaccharides Final digestion takes place on outer membranes of intestinal cells 0 Maltase 2 Breaks maltose into two glucose molecules 0 Sucrase 2 Breaks sucrose into glucose and fructose o Lactase 2 Breaks lactose into glucose and galactose 2 Mostly glucose molecules remain Large Intestine Fibers remain and attract water Bacteria in GI tract ferment some fibers mainly soluble o Generates water and gas 0 Fibers do contribute a small amount of energy for the colon 2kcalg Absorption Primarily takes place in the small intestine Active transport 0 Glucose and galactose Facilitated diffusion o Fructose Fructose and galactose are metabolized by the liver Glucose sent to body s cells for energy Only about 30 of adults have enough lactase Lactose Intolerant Symptoms o Lactose remains undigested in intestine and attracts water 2 Causes bloating abdominal discomfort and diarrhea o Lactose also becomes food for intestinal bacteria 2 Bacteria multiply and produce irritating acid and gas 2 Causes further abdominal discomfort and diarrhea Lactose Intolerant Causes 0 Lactase declines with age 0 Intestinal villi are damaged by disease medications and prolonged diarrhea Total elimination of milk products is usually not necessary 0 Most can consume a small amount 6 grams of lactose Managing lactose intolerance Experiment with milk products with a gradual increase Consume milk products with other food Spread them throughout the day Consume fermented milk products kefir and yogurt Cheese is often well tolerated Use milk products treated with an enzyme that breaks down lactose ex Lactaid OOOOOO Rachel Counce Exam 2 Glucose in the Body Primary energy source for cells Glycogen storage 0 Blood glucose rises after a meal 0 Excess glucose molecules are combined by condensation to form glycogen 0 When blood glucose levels fall the liver cells break down glycogen by hydrolysis 2 Single glucose molecules are released into the blood stream 0 Muscle cells hold onto most of their glycogen to use during exercise 0 Body can only store a small amount of glycogen What if we do not provide our body with adequate carbohydrates Proteins can be used to make glucose but not easily 0 Gluconeogenesis the making of new glucose 0 Adequate dietary CHO is needed to prevent gluconeogenesis Ketone bodies are formed when fat fragments combine 0 Ketones provide fuel during starvation 0 When production is higher than the use ketones accumulate in the blood 0 Ketone bodies are acidic disturbing the acidbase balance 0 Body needs at least 50100 grams of CHO per day If too much Glucose turns to fat Liver will break down glucose and store as fat Blood Glucose Steady stream of blood moves past cells to deliver glucose Fast blood sugar between 7099 mgdl Blood glucose is regulated by insulin and glucagon 0 Both secreted by the pancreas o Insulin Blood glucose rises 9 insulin released 9 glucose goes into cells 9 blood glucose returns to normal 0 Glucagon Blood glucose falls between meals 9 glucagon released 9 signals liver to breakdown glycogen stores 9 blood glucose returns to normal Diabetes Blood glucose remains above normal after a meal due to inadequate or ineffective insulin Type 1 Diabetes 0 Pancreas does not produce any or enough insulin 0 Typically diagnosed in childhood Type 2 Diabetes 0 Cells do not respond to insulin Rachel Counce Exam 2 0 Typically occurs due to obesity Hypoglycemia 0 Rare in healthy people 0 Symptoms weakness rapid heartbeat sweating anxiety hunger 0 Replace refined CHO with fiberrich CHO and eat small frequent meals Glycemic Response Glycemic response extent to which food raises blood glucose and elicits an insulin response 0 Slow absorption or response 0 Fast absorption or response ie a crashquot Glycemic index a method to classify foods according to their potential to raise blood glucose 0 Compare 100 grams of a food to 100 grams of a reference food typically glucose or white bread 0 Low legumes milk products 0 Moderate whole grains fruits 0 High processed foods bread carrots Sugar and Health Sugar intake is excessive in the US 0 3O tablespoons 120 grams per day Major sources sugarsweetened beverages desserts and candy Americans who drink sugarsweetened beverages have a higher energy intake Weigh more with high intake of added sugar Sugars displace more nutrient dense foods 0 May make it hard to meet vitamin and mineral recommendations Sugar Recommendations 2010 Dietary Guidelines 0 Caution that added sugars may increase the risk of chronic diseases 0 Reduce intake of kcal from added sugars o Discretionary kcal 100300 kcal per day 0 Practice good oral hygiene and consume added sugars less frequently to prevent dental caries According to the DRIs sugar should make up no more than 25 of your kcal Reducing Sugar Intake Use table sugar less often Use sugar to sweeten nutrient dense foods ex oatmeal Drink fewer sugarsweetened beverages Chose fruit for dessert Read ingredients and Nutrition Facts label Rachel Counce Identifying Sugar on Nutrition Facts Label Not easy for consumers to identify added sugars Label lists naturally and added sugars in grams Ingredients to identify added sugars 0 000000000 Corn syrup solids Dextrose Fructose High fructose corn syrup Honey Lactose Malt syrup Nectars Raw sugar Sucrose Sugars Sweeteners Natural sugar vs concentrated sugars Sugar has many names 0 00000 Sucrose Corn sugar Corn syrups High fructose corn syrup Honey Nonnutritive sweeteners Artificial Sweeteners High intensity sweetener 7 approved as safe by the FDA 1 Acesulfame K Sunnett and Sweet One 2 Aspartame NutraSweet 3 Luo Han Guo Fruit Monk Fruit 4 Neotame NutraSweet 5 Saccharin Sweet n Low 6 Stevia Truvia 7 Sucralose Splenda Health and Starch Fibers Diets rich in whole grains legumes vegetables and fruit may 0 O O 0 Protect against heart disease Help prevent type 2 Diabetes Assists individuals in managing their blood sugar Enhance health of the large intestine gt Prevent constipation gt Prevent diverticulitis Exam 2 Rachel Counce Exam 2 0 Protect against colon cancer 2 Bind and remove potential cancercausing agents from the colon Recommended Starch and Fiber Intake Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range AMDR 0 4565 of kcal from CHO Fiber 0 25 grams or more for women 0 35 grams or more for men 0 Actual intake averages at 1112 grams per day Real Life Recommendations At least half of grains should be whole grains 0 Look for 3 grams of fiber or more on the label Eat more fruits and vegetables Consume lowfat milk products Consume more legumerich meals Reduce intake of added sugars
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