Nutrition 101 Chapter 7 Notes
Nutrition 101 Chapter 7 Notes Nutrition 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Counce on Tuesday March 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Nutrition 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Lori Greene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 82 views.
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Date Created: 03/10/15
Rachel Counce Exam 2 Nutrition Chapter 7 Metabolism Definitions Metabolism set of life sustaining chemical reactions within the cells of living organisms Energy metabolism all chemical reactions in which the body obtains and expends energy 0 Coenzymes required in almost all metabolic reactions ATP adenosine triphosphate 3 phosphate groups Anabolism condensation o Glucose Glucose glycogen 0 Building or putting something together Catabolism hydrolysis o Glycolysis 0 Broken down Basics Nutrient components used to produce energy 0 Carbohydrates I Glucose I 4 kcal I 6 carbons I Proteins 0 Amino acids I 4 kcal I 35 carbons I Fats o Triglycerides I 9 kcal I 3 18 carbons Energy systems How long does it take to produce energy in the body 0 AnaerobicFast energy systems 0 AnaerobicSlow energy systems 0 Food fuel Metabolism Terms 0 Pyruvate o 3 carbons o Acetyl CoA o 2 carbons Enzyme Rachel Counce 0 Turned into glucose Krebs Cycle TCA Cycle 0 Series of metabolic reaction Electron Transport Chain 0 ATP and H20 0 Final pathway of energy metabolism Carbohydrate Metabolism Glucose 6 carbons 2 Pyruvate 3 carbons Lactate LIVEI39 Glucose l Acetyl CoA 2 carbons I TCA Cycle I ETC I ATP Water Lipid Metabolism Glycerol 3 carbons Pyruvate l Acetyl CoA gt Fatty Acuds 18 carbon TCA ETC l ATP H30 Protein Metabolism Ammo 50 Acuds 5000 Pyruvatc l Acetyl CoA l TCA I ETC I I ATP Water Exam 2 Rachel Counce Feasting Extra stored o Glycogen body fat Acetyl CoA turned back into body fat 0 Amino acids glucose fatty acids 0 Protein builds muscle and fat Fasting Shortterm fasting 1 day 0 Breakdown of glycogen Fasting for 25 days 0 Breakdown of lean tissues Exam 2 0 Amino acids and glycerol converted to pyruvate and then to glucose Longterm fasting week or longer 0 Breakdown of fat for fuel 0 Acetyl CoA builds up and converted to ketones Metabolic rate decreases Alcohol H Ethanol H3OH 2 carbons and 1 hydroxyl OH group I How many kcal in 1 gram of alcohol 7 kcal g H3OH How much should I drink H OH 0 Under 21 none H 0 Male 2 drinks per day 0 Female 1 drink per day What is a drink 0 5 ounces of wine 12 ounces ofbeer 15 ounces of liquor Glycerol is the alcohol used to make triglycerides YES this is why Alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme 0 Women produce less of this stomach enzyme 0 Consequently women absorb more alcohol Drinking on an empty stomach can also affect absorption rate 0 Absorbed more quickly if stomach is empty 0 Fasting causes the body to breakdown proteins 2 Alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme is a protein YES this is why Liver cells are the first to receive alcohol after absorption 0 Stops most functions to metabolize alcohol 0 May permanently change the liver structure I I I IQ Ceagage Learning 2013 Ethanol is the alcohol in beer wine and liquor Rachel Counce Exam 2 2 Lose ability to metabolize fats fatty liver The liver can only metabolize one drink per hour The alcohol will continue to circulate until the liver enzymes are ready to processit NO this is why Very dangerous you are bypassing the safeguards that your body uses to protect you against alcohol Digestion of alcohol 0 Alcohol needs virtually no digestion o Absorbed quickly anyways o Reaches brain within a few minutes YES Alcohol alters protein metabolism including those important to the immune system YES this is why Brain cells can die with excessive exposure to alcohol 0 Not all of them can regenerate YES this is why Alcohol depresses production of antidiuretic hormone o ADH is a hormone that helps body retain water Some tips 0 Drink water when thirsty 0 Drink a glass of water before every alcoholic drink 0 Drink 12 glasses of water before going to bed
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