notes for quiz on 5/29
notes for quiz on 5/29 HIS 151
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laura Dominguez on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 151 at La Salle University taught by DE ANGELIS in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see GLOBAL HIS TO 1500 in History at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 04/26/16
State Formation in Africa SubSaharan Africa, i.e. Nubia, Ethiopia, Swahili Coast… Nubia Northeast of Africa, near Egypt Between 6001250 CE we see a Christian kingdom emerge Meroe is a major city, which falls by 350 mainly due to deforestation around the city centers. They do not have the means to build further, it is affected by erosions and nomadic attacks. The camel is introduced as an important means of transportation which leads the nomads into Meroe to attack and raid. Trade leads to new “merchant class” with wealth and power. This builds the foundation for Nubian States in around 400s CE. Merchants become chiefs and create three kingdoms. The 3 Kingdoms Thrive due to technology such as the animal driven water wheel, which allows others to prosper—water can be pumped for irrigation. There is an increase in the population of this area. They are located around the Nile, and especially dominate the middle Nile valley. Coptic Christianity Rises up in Egypt and filters into Nubia. Coptic: “copt” is derived from the word gypt and means “Egyptian.” Native Egyptians mostly embrace Coptic Christianity. St. Mark introduces Christianity in Egypt. Travels in 2 separate occasions on mission trips to preach Christianity and its message. Within a century, it becomes very widespread. Kings/Pharaohs send out missionaries to convert people, which is how Nubia Christianizes. Arab Invasion Use siege tactics to invade Egypt in 652 CE. Nubians force Arabs to retreat through their archers (i.e. bow and arrows) There was no “victory” but there was a pact that came out of this encounter. Both states formally recognized each other and laid out different military, trade agreements etc. Agriculture and Government Centered in 2 mile stretches from the Nile. Rich soil that allowed for harvest of nutritious food. Thanks to irrigation, the are able to grow other things like wheat, grapes (for wine, which is an important part of their culture) in more elevated areas of the land. About 200 years after the 3 kingdoms form, a great ruler arises, who is able to unite them. The daytoday management of the kingdom falls on a dozen “vassal rulers” who are the local government. Eparchs are originally appointed by the king, and then becomes a hereditary role. They are responsible for the overall defense of Nubia. They are responsible for protecting Nubia from Egypt. Religious organization The Coptic patriarch, who resides in Alexandria, appoints bishops. Different from western Europe because there is a separation of who appoints religious vs. government leaders. Trade Pact that arose in 652 CE between Arabs and Nubians forms the foundation of all trade relations. Nubians make sure that stipulations are laid out clearly about many goods, including slaves. King taxes any merchant caravans that travel through Nubia. Because of the introduction of Arabs, we see a new moneybased system. Instead of trading goodsforgoods, there is a start of trading goodsformoney. Between 8001200, there is a prominence of Arab merchants. This leads them to gain political importance within society. o They start to build mosques and settle along the red sea. o They are trying to compete with the Umayyad and Abbasid empires. Their goal is also to undercut the Fatmids’ profits from trade by establishing and strengthening maritime trade. Political Muslim Control In 1276 CE, the Christian Nubian kings are defeated. At this point in Egyptian history, the Egyptian Mamluks who took over Egypt come into Nubia, and overthrow the Christian king there. They establish a puppet king control of Nubia lies in Egypt under the Mamluks. o As a result, Christianity in this area dies out by the 1400’s because of the heavy Muslim influence. Kingdom of Aksum: Eastern Highlands Large Christian kingdom. At their height, they are one of the first to colonize Yemen, to fight against the Muslims. By 570 CE, they lose Yemen to the Persians. This, coupled with resource depletion, leads to the shriveling of this oncevibrant kingdom. o It becomes little more than a chiefdom. Regardless of it size, it maintains its importance for trading relations. Specifically, ivory and cotton textiles are the main goods that keep them afloat. It regresses from being a money based “coin system” economy, to a goodsforgoods trading economy. It partners in red sea trade with Muslims, Egypt, and East Africa by the 800’s CE. At one point, its trading relations extend as far out as India. They are also engaged in slave trading, they traded captured people from opposing tribes (so Northeastern Africans were trading other Africans in interior parts of the region before Europeans engaged in transAtlantic trade). In the 970’s CE, a southern queen named Judeth possibly led a conquest mission into Aksum to pillage them. She was converted against her will and as a result, she burns down villages in Aksum and rules in a reign of terror for 40 years. Zagwe Dynasty They create a stable kingdom in the highlands (including Aksum). Also known as Ethiopian highlands, or Abyssinia, they are now Christianized and stable from 11321270 CE. In 1137, the Zagwe king asks one of the metropolitan bishops to appoint 7 more bishops. This was in an effort to break away from Alexandria while still maintaining Coptic Christianity. They needed at least 10 bishops to reach an independence vote. Another effort to Christianize further is building Lalibela churches. o The point of this was to bring about biblican “zion” to be something like the “new Jerusalem” Kings continue to sponsor missionaries, provincial lords collect rent in grain and cattle…there is an overall king who rules by “divine right.” Solomonid Dynasty Arises in 1270 around 300 miles from the city of Aksum. It starts in the current Ethiopian capital of AddisAbaba. The foundation narrative is called the “Kebra Negast” which states they are legitimate rules because they are descendents from King Solomon (Shiba and Solomon’s union is allegedly the beginning of their lineage.) They are able to appropriate this blood relation to biblical figures better than any of their Western counterparts. This religious tradition still lives on—it is now also present in Rastafarian Jamaica. Ethiopian Christians and Muslims Powerful kingdom between 1300s1400s Command a large mercenary army to control multiple principalities of Christians and nonChristian Africans, as well as Muslims in the southern highlands Amda Seyon is the Ethiopian king that begins the expansion that doubles the kingdom in size. He goes on a “holy war” against Muslim sultanates, mainly concentrating on the area around the red sea. This is the time when we first see a historical text from this region, depicting in detail the Glorious Victories of Amda Seyon. Conquers sultanates of Ephat and Adal, but leaves the Muslim rulers in power—they are vassals of the king, and must pay taxes in tribute. Ruthless, but pragmatic approach. The exempted Muslim merchants from Chrisitan missionary efforts. Therein results a multiethnic, multilinguistic empire. Adopt Christianized Roman law, known as Fetha Nagast aka law of kings, in the 1400’s. It is a single law code about all aspects of the law. Translated from Greek to Arabic so more people could read it. The Feha Nagast remains the law code until the 1930’s, when the modern Ethiopian constitution emerged. East & South Africa Arab Kharijis establish trade contacts with East Africa after being pushed out by Muslims. Contact begins around the 700’s CE. At this time, people in the area are living in villages, but begin to adapt to longdistance trade and the Islamic civilization. Different socioeconomic strata emerge, there are new items, including luxury goods, that certain groups of people can afford. Goods come into the eastern ports, little areas throughout the coast are known as Swahili States. Around the 900’s CE, merchants from Shiraz (Iran) come to East Africa for trade. The wealthy Swahili people (most likely merchant families) claim descent from Shiraz with the purpose to gain influence and authority. o This further leads to the decline of Kharaji power. Sharifian peoples arrive around 1050 CE and claim to be descendants of Muhammad for the same purpose. They become “merchant elites.” Here we see the amount of influence that Muslim migrants/merchants had in the Swahili States. Mosques spring up throughout the 12 states. Social rank depended on distance from interior of city center—the closer, the wealthier. Commoners lived in separate towns, with fishermen, sailors etc. City Governments Governed either by king or a counsel of patriarch (patricians). Many patricians were of middle eastern descent, and belonged to the merchant class. They traded with nonMuslim natives located in the interior. Kings had an easy time trading with those in the interior, because they could form alliances with these nonMuslims by acting like a chiefdom, which was familiar to them. Trade in: ivory, skins, hard woods, for pottery, glass beads. Coastal towns get famous visitors, like Chinese military leaders and their fleet, and famous Muslim figures. Southern & Central Africa Pattern of increasing population and visible rise in wealth. o Mainly thanks to trade with Swahili states. Towns begin to appear in around 1050 CE due to influx of money, by 1070 CE the first kingdom is formed. o Formed by Mapungubwe Kings live relatively secluded atop a hill. Commoners live separately. As time goes on, Mapungubwe is abandoned (late 1200’s CE) because the area around it dries up. People head northeast to Great Zimbabwe. Here we see further mining of gold, as well as grain and cattle raising as the main sources of income for inhabitants. There is a royal palace on a hill, and at its height, two surrounding enclosures were there are 18,000 commoners living. Empire falls in 1505 CE because a shorter trade route is discovered, which effectively cuts them out. Central Africa More sparsely populated in comparison to rest of Africa. Depends on agriculture and trade in order to survive, specifically in the Kingdom of Luba. Civilization had a foundation myth of two kings who competed to become the one legitimate king. Kings are perceived to have royal bloodline established at the foundation myth, special magical powers etc. King rules with chiefdoms to maintain daily order, but only he is the exalted one. West Africa & Islam Around 300’s CE, North African Berbers begin use of Arabian camel for trade. Kingdom of Ghana lasts from 300 CE to 1000 CE, until it is taken over by the kingdom of Mali. Sahel: transition zone between savannah and sahara desert. Soninke people begin trading first with Romans, then with Berbers, a process which becomes consistent by the 500 CE. Ancient Ghana increases in influence and authority. By the mid700s, they become one of the strongest groups/strongest chiefdoms in the area. Eventually it takes over the center of trade between north African Islamic states. By mid700’s CE, Dinga dominates over the others and declares himself king. o This is part of Ghana’s founding myth. o As their king, he creates a capital; Wagadu, aka the “twin city.” o One city is heavily Islamic and mostly inhabited by Muslims/merchants. The other city, known as the “royal city” is where the tombs of past rulers are located. Kings, which are considered to have magical status first refuse to convert to Islam. Eventually they do, not until the 1100’s CE, most likely due to Muslim leaders elsewhere who were threatening them militarily. By 1100’s CE, Ghanian society is divided, in part due to tensions between Muslims and nonMuslims.
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