Management 300 Week 8 Notes
Management 300 Week 8 Notes Management 300
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Grek on Tuesday March 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Management 300 at Arizona State University taught by in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 99 views.
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Date Created: 03/10/15
Management 300 Week 8 Notes Organizational culture corporate culture a system of shared beliefs and values that develops within an organization and guides the behavior of its members Organizational structure a formal system of task and reporting relationships that coordinates and motivate an organization39s members so that they can work together to achieve the organization39s goals Culture plus structure steps vision strategy culture structure amp internal practices collective attitudes amp behaviors and achievement of goals Competing values framework 1 Clan culture has an internal focus and values exibility rather than stability and control 2 Adhocracy culture has an external focus and values exibility 3 Market culture has a strong external focus and values stability and control 4 Hierarchy culture has an internal focus and values stability and control over exibility Three levels of Organizational Culture Level 1 Observable artifacts Physical manifestations of culture such as a manner of dress awards myths rituals etc Level 2 Espoused values the explicitly stated values and norms preferred by an organization And Enacted values represent the values and norms actually exhibited in the organization Level 3 Basic assumptions core values of the organization They are not observable How employees learn culture 1 Symbols an object act quality or event that conveys meaning 2 Stories a narrative based on true events which is repeated and sometimes embellished upon to emphasize a particular value 3 Heroes a person whose accomplishments embody the values of the organization 4 Rites and rituals the activities and ceremonies planned and unplanned that celebrate important occasions and accomplishments in the organization39s life The importance of culture 1 It gives members an organizational identity 2 It facilitates collective commitment 3 It promotes socialsystem stability 4 It shapes behavior by helping employees make sense of their surroundings Cultures for enhancing economic performance 3 perspectives 1 The Strength Perspective assumes that the strength of a corporate culture is related to a rm39s longterm nancial performance 2 The Fit Perspective assumes that an organization39s culture must align or t with its business or strategic context 3 The Adaptive Perspective assumes that the most effective cultures help organizations anticipate and adapt to environmental changes The Process of Culture Change 1 Formal Statements Slogans and Sayings Stories Legends and Myths Leader reactions to crises Role modeling training and coaching Physical design Rewards titles promotions and bonuses Organizational goals and performance criteria LOWNOWU39lbUJN Measurable and controllable activities 10 Organizational structure 11 Organizational systems and procedures Chester Barnard39s classic de nition an organization is a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more people 3 Types of Organizations 1 Forpro t organizations 2 Nonpro t organizations 3 Mutualbene t organizations Organization chart a boxandlines illustration showing the formal lines of authority and the organization39s of cial positions or work specializations The vertical hierarchy of authority who reports to whom Shows the chain of command The horizontal specialization who specializes in what work 4 Common Elements of Organizations by Edgar Schein 1 Common Purpose uni es employees or members and gives everyone an understanding of the organization39s reason for being 2 Coordinated effort the coordination of individual efforts into a group or organization wide effort 3 Division of labor work specialization the arrangement of having discrete parts of a task done by different people 4 Hierarchy of authority chain of command a control mechanism for making sure the right people do the right things at the right time Unity of command in which an employee should report to no more than one manager Rest of the 7 Common Elements of Organizations that most authorities agree on 5 Span of control span of management refers to the number of people reporting directly to a given manager Narrow span of control a manager has a limited number of people reporting Wide span of control a manager has several people reporting 6 Authority Responsibility and Delegation line versus staff positions Authority refers to the rights inherent in a managerial position to make decisions give orders and utilize resources Accountability managers must report and justify work results to the managers above them Responsibility the obligation you have to perform the tasks assigned to you Delegation the process of assigning managerial authority and responsibility to managers and employees lower in the hierarchy Line managers have the authority to make decisions and usually have people reporting to them Staff personnel have authority functions they provide advice recommendations and research to line managers 7 Centralization vs decentralization of authority With centralized authority important decisions are made by higherlevel managers With decentralized authority important decisions are made by middlelevel and supervisorylevel managers Organizational design concerned with designing the optimal structures of accountability and responsibility that an organization uses to execute its strategies 3 types 1 Traditional designs simple functional divisional amp matrix structures Simple structure has authority centralized in a single person a at hierarchy few rules and low work specialization Functional structure people with similar occupational specialties are put together in formal groups Divisional structure people with diverse occupational specialties are put together in formal groups by similar products or services customers or clients or geographic regions Product divisions group activities around similar products or services Customer divisions tend to group activities around common customers or clients Geographic divisions group activities around de ned regional locations Matrix structure an organization combines functional and divisional chains of command in a grid so that there are two command structuresvertical and horizontal 2 Horizontal design teams or workgroups either temporary or permanent are used to improve collaboration and work on shared tasks by breaking down internal boundaries 3 Designs that open boundaries between organizations hollow modular and virtual structures Boundaryless organization a uid highly adaptive organization whose members linked by information technology come together to collaborate on common tasks The collaborators may include not only coworkers but also suppliers customers and even competitors Hollow structure network structure the organization has a central core of key functions and outsources other function to vendors who can do them cheaper or faster Modular structure a rm assembles product chunks or modules provided by outside contractors Virtual organization an organization whose members are geographically apart usually working with email collaborative computing and other computer connections Virtual structure a company outside a company that is created quotspeci cally to respond to an exceptional market opportunity that is often temporaryquot 4 factors to be considered in designing an organization39s structure the process of tting the organization to its environment is called contingency design 1 The environment mechanistic vs organic organizations the Burns and Stalker model Mechanistic organization authority is centralized tasks and rules are clearly speci ed and employees are closely supervised Organic organization authority is decentralized there are fewer rules and procedures and networks of employees are encouraged to cooperate and respond quickly to unexpected tasks Many teams 2 The environment differentiation vs integration the Lawrence and Lorsch model Differentiation the tendency of the parts of an organization to disperse and fragment Integration the tendency of the parts of an organization to draw together to achieve a common purpose 3 Life cycle four stages in the life of an organization the four stage organizational life cycle has a natural sequence of stages birth youth midlife and maturity Stage 1 Birth stage the nonbureaucratic stage the stage in which the organization is created Stage 2 Youth stage the organization is in a prebeaucratic stage a stage of growth and expansion Stage 3 Midlife stage the organization becomes bureaucratic a period of growth evolving into stability Stage 4 Maturity stage the organization becomes very bureaucratic large and mechanistic 4 The link between strategy and structure Highy integrated organization has a formal chain of command standardized rules and procedures frequent communication specialists working toward a common goal use of crossfunctional teams
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