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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana Notetaker on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at La Salle University taught by Lacombe in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 04/26/16
Stress A psychophysiological illness is any stress-related physical illness such as hypertension and some headaches. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a field that discovers how stress has an effect on the immune system. B lymphocytes fight bacterial infections, T lymphocytes attack cancer cells. General Adaptation Syndrome According to Selye, a stress response to any kind of stimulation is similar. The stressed individual goes through three phases Module addresses the effects of stress on illness Stage 1 (alarm stage) – Shock and counter shock; the mobilization of bodily resources to prepare the body for fight or flight (increasing heart rate, turning off digestion, adrenal glands will produce an adrenaline rush. The body is preparing to meet the demands of the stressor either continuing or going back to base line when calmed. Resilient to negative effects of stress because we have resources to handle it. Stage 2 (resistance) – the body has to adapt to heightened arousal for a long period of time in order to physiologically cope with the stressor. The heightened arousal is enabled by the support of stress hormones one being cortisol (maintenance of higher levels of arousal). HPA complex system will enable to secretion of the stress hormones. Hypothalamus – initiates or suppresses stress response, Pituitary glands – the endocrine system will secrete acth, Adrenals – are going to pour out stress hormones and facilitate heightened levels of arousal. Stage 3 (exhaustion) – the resources to cope with high levels of the stress is depleting. More vulnerable to the stress because we’re running out of resources to handle the stress. Immunosuppression effects. Signs of Stress Emotional – moody Cognitive – the effects on your thinking capabilities Behavioral – you stop what you’re supposed to do or start something you’re not supposed to do Physiological – any biological symptom one may have Personality Styles Type A is a term used for competitive, hard- driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people. Type B refers to easygoing relaxed people. Cognitive Appraisal Stress is a process by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges Primary appraisal – the assessment of the degree of harm by the stressor Secondary appraisal – the assessment of coping with the stressor Explanatory style People with an optimistic explanatory style tend to have more control over stressors, cope better with stressful events, have better moods, and have a stronger immune system Locas of control research – where people believe control comes from. Some people thing internal control and others think outside control being some powerful other is in control. Luck, Fate, Chance subgroup believes no one is in control things just happen. Biofeedback system uses electronic devices to inform people about their physiological responses. Relaxation and meditation have similar effects in reducing tension and anxiety Coping Problem-focused : reducing stress by changing events that cause stress or by changing how we react to stress
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