EEMB 50 Non Infectious Diseases
EEMB 50 Non Infectious Diseases
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This 2 page Reader was uploaded by Gabriela Lopez on Friday April 18, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 114 views.
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Date Created: 04/18/14
EEMB 50 NON Infectious Diseases Lecture 9 April 18 2014 Cancer Risks and Cancer Clusters an epidemic of anxiety Many headlines in media about the risks of cancer but the actual dangers are actually lower Over last 1520 yrs The Worst carcinogens have been identified 1 Ex Smoking causing lung cancer 2 Chemicals that caused cancer when Workers Were in contact with them chimney and steel Workers Press likes to dramatize the risks Many studies suggest that many things like yogurt and coffee can cause cancer 1 The relative risks they give are from 13 risk and instill fear into society Human studies of cancer risks would be unethical and on animas would be hard to interpret Some studies and surveys 2 Electromagnetic Fields and Leukemia in children Source of Worry and doubt for many people 3 Used the phone numbers of people to ask Whether they lived in certain areas and Whether they had small children 4 These were biased because of economic reasons poorer families would not have a phone and if they did they would be less likely to participate in the survey 5 Many of the poorer families would be more likely to live in these areas and outside in uences such as drinking and smoking during pregnancy would in uence these results When people identify with cancer they remember and think more about how and Why they got cancer Oral contraceptives and breast cancer 1 Case control studies suggest a link biased 2 Cohort studies do not find a link Cancer Clusters there is a lack of them We find cancers and then see Where they are They are used to describe a greater number of cancers in a particular area Most are just a feature of random clustering that are expected normally Some clusters are created when people don t look at cancers but not at a range of them so they assume there must be a cluster in that area Diet is also a cause of cancer There have been studies that suggest specific foods cause or help fight against cancer O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 People do not think of that fact that because some chemicals do kill cancer in petridishes they will also not harm some healthy cells surrounding cancerous cells Obesity is associated with many cancers because it causes the release of certain hormones which in uence cell division and cause changes in the body Alcohol is also a cause of cancer especially kidney In some countries there is a cancer that is most prominent these can be seen as clusters and people think they might be hereditary to the native people of those countries But this is not true because if they move the majority have the same type of cancer prominent to the area to which they moved to Ex in Austria Skin Cancer is the most prominent cancer While in the US it is Colon Cancer Key Cancer Facts Carcinogens are mutagens Cancer is not a single disease Cells do not need to discover anything new to become cancerous A cell must suffer multiple mutations to become cancerous Cancer cells can be immortal Cancer detected early is often cured Cancer that has metastasized is very hard to treat Most cancers detected by screening would never become dangerous Overdiagnosis carries risks of side effects and even death 10 Most large cancer risks Were discovered years ago 11 Small cancer risks are very hard to distinguish from nothing 12 Cancer clusters are exceedingly rare
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