Chapter 4 Notes
Chapter 4 Notes General Chemistry 0110
Popular in General Chemistry 1
Popular in Chemistry
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Lee on Wednesday March 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to General Chemistry 0110 at University of Pittsburgh taught by in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Pittsburgh.
Reviews for Chapter 4 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/11/15
Grace Lee General Chemistry Chapter 4 notes A Ionic Theory of Solutions and Solubility Rules a lonic Theory of Solutions certain substances produce fr eely moving ions when dissolved in water b Electrolyte substance that dissolves in water to give an electrically conducting solution i lonic solids that dissolve in water are electrolytes c Nonelectrolyte substance that dissolves in water to give a nonconducting or very poorly conducting solution Pure water is nonconducting e Strong Electrolyte electrolyte that exists in solution almost entirely as ions i lonic solids that dissolve NaCl f Weak electrolyte electrolyte that dissolves in water to give relatively small percentage of ions i Generally molecular soluble substance except HCI B Molecular and lonic Equations a Molecular Equation chemical equation in which reactants and products are written as if they were molecular substances even though may exist in solution as ions i Explicit reactant solutions and products b Complete Ionic Equation chemical equation in which strong electrolytes are written as separate ions in solution i Use form of matter c Spectator Ion ion in an ionic equation that does not take part in the reaction d Net Ionic Equation ionic equation from which spectator ions have been cancelled C Precipitation Reactions a Precipitate insoluble solid compound formed during a chemical reaction in solution b Exchange Reaction reaction between compounds that appears to involve exchange of parts between two reactants i Anions exchange between two cations D AcidBase Reactions a Acidbase indicator dye used to distinguish between acidic and basic solutions by means of color changes b Acid substance that produces hydrogen ions H when dissolved in water i Donates proton to another species in proton transfer reaction c Base substance that produces hydroxide ions OH when dissolved in water i Accepts proton in proton transfer 0 1 Ex dissolution of nitric acid NH3 a NH3 H20 l NH4 OH i H transfers from water to NH3 Strong Acid acid that ionizes completely in water strong electrolyte Weak Acid acid that only partly ionizes water weak electrolyte Strong Base base that is present in aqueous solution entirely as ions on is OH i Hydroxides in Groups IA and HA are strong bases Weak Base base that is only partly ionized in water weak electrolyte Neutralization Reaction reaction of an acid and a base that results in an ionic compound and possibly water i Ionic compound that is a product of neutralization is a salt Monoprotic Acid only have one acidic hydrogen atom per acid molecule Polyprotic Acid acid that yields two or more acidic hydrogens per molecule i Acid salts acidic ydrogen atoms and undergo neutralization with bases E OxidationReduction Reactions a Oxidation Number state actual charge of the atom if it exists as a monatomic ion or hypothetical charge assigned to the atom in substance Oxidationreduction reaction reaction in which electrons are transferred between species or in which atoms change oxidation number i OILRIG oxidation is loss of an electron reduction is gain Halfreaction one of the two parts of an oxidationreduction reaction one part of which involves a loss of electrons or increase of oxidation and other gain of electrons decrease of oxidation i Oxidation halfreaction in which there is a loss of electrons by a species ii Reduction halfreaction in which there is a gain of electrons by a species Oxidizing Agent species that oxidizes another species reduced Reducing Agent species that reduces another species oxidized Combination Reaction reaction in which two substances combine to form a third substance Decomposition Reaction reaction in which a single compound reacts to give two or more substances h Displacement Reactions Single replacement reaction in which an element reacts with compound displacing another element from it Combustion Reaction reaction in which a substance reacts with oxygen heat i Water is always a product F Balancing Simple OxidationReduction Equations a b Half Reaction method separate equation into two halfreactions one for oxidation other reduction i Balance each half reaction Identify species being oxidized and reduced and assign appropriate oxidation states c Write halfreactions in unbalanced form d Balance charge in each equation by adding electrons to more positive side to balance G Molar Concentration a b Molar Concentration moles of solute dissolved in one liter of solution i MMoles of soluteLiters of Solution ii Bring to volume iii Conversion factor Diluting solutions i Initial molarity and nal molarity ii Moles of Solutemolarity x liters of solution iii When solution is diluted concentration and volume change nal molar concentration and volume but not of moles iv M x V initial M x V nal H Gravimetric Analysis a b Qualitative analysis determination of the amount of a substance or species present in a material Gravimetric analysis type of quantitative analysis in which the amount of a species in a material is determined by converting the species to a product that can be isolated completely and weighed i Determine amount of ionic species by precipitating from solution ii Adv simple and accuracy iii Disadv meticulous and timeconsuming l Volumetric Analysis a Titration procedure for determining amount of substance A by adding a carefully measured volume of a solution with known concentration of B until reaction of A and B are complete Volumetric Analysis method of analysis based on titration
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'