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Chapter 5 Notes

by: Grace Lee

Chapter 5 Notes General Chemistry 0110

Grace Lee
GPA 3.58
General Chemistry 1

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This set of notes covers the gas laws, law of partial pressures, kinetic-molecular theory, and molecular speeds from the General Chemistry textbook.
General Chemistry 1
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Lee on Wednesday March 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to General Chemistry 0110 at University of Pittsburgh taught by in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 130 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Pittsburgh.

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Date Created: 03/11/15
311General Chemistry 0110 Chapter 5 Notes The Gaseous State and Gas Laws A Gas Pressure and Its Measurement a b c d Pressure force exerted per unit area of surface Acceleration change in speed per unit of time msZ Pascal Pa SI unit of pressure kgm x 52 very small unit Barometer device for measuring pressure of atmosphere mercury i At sea level mercury is 760 mm above level ii Manometer device that measures the pressure of a gas or liquid in a vessel Millimeters of mercury mmHg Torr unit of pressure equal to that exerted by a column of mercury 1 mm high at 0C Atmosphere atm unit of pressure equal to exactly 760 mmHg i P gdh 1 G acceleration of gravity 981 msquot2 2 D density B Empirical Gas Laws a b Compressibility ability to be squeezed into smaller volume by application of pressure Boyle39s law volume of a sample of gas at a given temperature varies inversely with the applied pressure i PV constant for xed temperature Charles39s Law volume occupied by any sample of gas at a constant pressure is directly proportional to the absolute temperature i VT constant at xed pressure Combined Gas Law PVT i Ratios Avogadro39s law equal volumes of any two gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules Molar gas volume volume of one mole of gas g Standard temperature and pressure STP reference conditions for gases chosen by convention to be 0C and 1 atm i V at STP 224 LMol C The Ideal Gas Law a Molar gas constant R constant of proportionality relating the molar volume of a gas to TP i PVnRT or nV nRTP ii IDEAL GAS LAW Gas laws most accurate for low to moderate gas pressures and temperatures Density also varies with temperature and pressure because density is massvolume Molecular mass and density molar mass is mn i Substitute nmM into ideal gas law 1 PM dRT D Stoichiometry Problems lnvolving Gas Volumes a Rearrange gas laws and substitute E Gas mixtures Law of Partial Pressures a b Partial pressure pressure exerted by a particular gas in a mixture Dalton39s Law of partial pressures sum of partial pressures of all the different gases in mixture is equal to the total pressure of the mixture i P PA PB PC Mole fraction fraction of moles of that component in the total moles of gas mixture i A nn PP ii Mole percent equal to percentage of molecules that are component molecules F KineticMolecular Theory Kinetic Theory of an ldeal Gas a b c Tth Bombardment of container walls of moving molecules Repulsion of gas particles Postulates accepted as long as prediction is in agreement with experiment i Gases are composed of molecules whose size is negligible compared with the average distance between them ignore volume occupied by molecules ii Molecules move randomly in straight lines in all directions at various speeds iii The forces of attraction or repulsion between two molecules intermolecular forces in a gas are very weak or negligible except when they collide iv When molecules collide with one another the collisions are elastic 1 Total kinetic energy is constant no energy lost 2 Same average kinetic energy per molecule v The average kinetic energy of a molecule is proportional to the absolute temperature Molecular concentration and speed determine frequency of collisions with wall Increase number of moles of gas volume increases Frequency of collisions also proportional to average speed g Frequency of collisions inversely proportional to volume i P ux1VxNxmu ii Average kinetic energy is 12muquot2 proportional to moles of molecules n iii Gives PVnRT G Molecular Speeds Diffusions and Effusion a Rootmeansquare rms molecular speed u type of average molecular speed equal to the speed of a molecule having the average molecular kinetic energy i Square Root of 3RTM Use consistent units depending on SI units Diffusion process whereby a gas spreads out through another gas 0 occupy the space uniformly Effusion the process in which a gas ows through a small hole in a container Graham39s law of effusion the rate of effusion of gas molecules from a particular hole is inversely proportional to the square root of the molecular mass of the gas at constant temperature and pressure i Depends on area of hole number of molecules average molecular speed ii Rate of effusion inversely proportional to square root of molar mass iii 1Mquot12 H Real Gases a Real gases deviate from laws b Van der Waals equation equation similar to the ideal gas law but includes two constants a and b to account for deviations from ideal behavior i Pnquot2avquot2vnb nRT


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