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BIOL 220 Test 1 Notes

by: Rebecca Istre

BIOL 220 Test 1 Notes BIOL 120

Rebecca Istre
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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These notes have all but the last few lectures that will be on the first exam. These are a combination of lecture notes, the text book, the internet, and S.I. sessions. These notes cover chapte...
Anatomy and Physiology
Dr. Alciatore
Class Notes
Biology, A&P, anatomy, Phisiology, BIOL, Bio




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This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Istre on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 120 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Dr. Alciatore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology in Biology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 04/26/16
BIOL Notes Test 1  Homeostasis o “to stand still” o Physiology  How our body parts work o Our bodies operate constantly to maintain set levels o We perceive change outside and within ourselves and are able to respond accordingly to adjust to those changes o When the stimulus is no longer present, we are able to go back to “normal” o EX  If we perceive danger, we are able to increase our heart rate and move our muscles  When we are no longer in danger, we are able to lower our heart rate and stop moving our muscles o EX  Fever is a movement away from “normal”  We respond to it by opening our pores and increase blood flow to the skin to get rid of the excess heat  This allows our bodies to get back to “normal”  Solves a digression from the norm o Homeostatic mechanisms (gets levels back to “normal”)  Negative feedback  EX o Blood glucose levels  High glucose levels  The beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas detect when we have an excess of glucose in the blood stream (digression from the standard)  The beta cells (sensors) produce insulin (hormone) which enters the blood and “looks” for a target cell (like a muscle)  The insulin attaches to a peripheral protein receptor (unique for insulin) on the outside of the (adipose/muscle?) cell  Ultimately, this allows glucose to enter the cell  Now the glucose levels in the blood stream have been brought back to “normal”  The glucose is then broken down via cellular respiration to make ATP (for energy)  Low glucose levels  The alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas detect when there is a lack of glucose in the blood steam  The alpha cells (sensors) produce glucagon (hormone) which enters the blood and “looks” for a target cell  The glucagon attaches to a peripheral protein receptor (unique for glucagon) on the outside of the same cell  This encourages the glucose to exit the cell  Now the glucose levels have been brought back to “normal”  “Normal” glucose levels (standard/set point)  92 mg of glucose per 100 mL of blood  92mg/100mL o If a cell needs calcium  Same model  Different sensor (parathyroid glands)  Product produced is parathormone/parathyroid hormone (PTH)  The parathyroid releases PTH when blood calcium falls above below 8.5 mg/dL  When PTH is released, this signals cells (like bone) to release calcium  The parathyroid stops producing PTH when blood calcium falls above 10.2 mg/dL  This signals cells to stop releasing calcium o When we get too hot, we sweat ll First messenger ll hormone First messenger hormone Sensor Sensor High Low “levels” “levels”  Positive feedback  EX o Blood clotting  If your finger is cut, there is a clotting response  Your body doesn’t go back to the standard when the stimulus stops  Another event stops the clotting process o Natural childbirth  The contraction of the uterus stimulates the release of oxytocin, which stimulates more contractions  This cycle continues until the baby is born o Cancerous tumors  More “bad” cells begets more “bad” cells o Action potentials o Lactation o Ovulation  You can have less and less stimulus  You can have more and more stimulus  If this mechanism does not work properly (because of medicine or a disease), you may develop clots in your blood vessels, leading to a stroke  Instead of bringing the “levels” back to “normal” (like negative feedback) it amplifies the original stimulus until something else stops it  There are few positive feedback mechanisms because they generally lead to something catastrophic (especially if not stopped)  Cells o Smallest entity that represents life o Ex red blood cells  “run around” on their own o Some are packed closely together  EX epithelial cells of your skin o Some are “stuck” together by gap junctions  EX nerve cells (called electrical synapses)  They directly connect the cytoplasm of two cells  Allows molecules, ions, and electrical impulses to pass directly though one cell to the other (via a regulatory gate)  Found in many types of cells o Desmosomes  Molecular complexes of cell adhesion proteins that attaches two cells together  Found in simple and stratified squamous epithelial cells and muscle cells o Size and shape determines the function  Neurons are long because they need to send signals over long distances o Sends a signal from your spinal cord to the tip of your toe  Shape dictates function, function dictates shape Cell membrane Nucle Lysosom us es ribosom Gol E es gi o Words R to know o Inter- Lysosom es  meroxiso Mitochond  ria “between”  Intercellular  Interstitial o Intra-  “within”  Intracellular o Extra-  “outside”  Extracellular o Nucleus o The “brains” of the cell o Directs cell activities o Contains genetic material (DNA) o Mitochondria o The “powerhouse” of the cell o Makes energy (ATP) from glucose o Ribosomes o Protein synthesis o Polyribosomes  Proteins that do work inside the cell o Golgi o Makes, processes and packages proteins o Lies close to ER and the nucleus o Related to lysosomes? o ER o Made of double membranes that form sacs called cisternae o Proteins are pinched off in vesicles o Related to peroxisomes? o SER  Agranular  Ribosomes are not attached  Makes cellular products like hormones and lipids  More are found in cells that release oils o RER  Granular  Ribosomes are attached  Produces proteins and helps fold them properly  High density near the nucleus and Golgi o Lysosome o Contains digestive enzymes to break down wastes o Contains proteolytic enzymes  Takes in proteolytic matter and breaks it down into useful products + o H pump  Takes in organic matter  Makes the environment less acidic o Single phospholipid layer o “suicide packets” o Buds off the Golgi o Vacuole o Used for storage o Peroxisomes o Breakdown long fatty acid chains o Bud off the ER o Peroxidase  H 2 2 o Takes in free radicals and stabilizes them o Cell membrane o Maintains the cell’s integrity o Controls transport of molecules, ions, and atoms in/out of cell o Transport  Passive transport  Movement of molecules across the cell membrane  Does not require energy  Dependent on the permeability of the cell membrane  Diffusion o Molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration  Osmosis o The movement of water across a semi- permeable membrane from a higher concentration of solutes  Facilitated Diffusion o Does not require ATP o Requires cell membrane proteins (carrier proteins) o Molecules move across the cell membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration  Active transport  Requires the cell to use energy, usually in the form of ATP  Creates a charge gradient in the membrane  Keeps unwanted ions or other molecules out of the cell that are able to diffuse through the cell membrane  Uses energy to send substances against their gradient (low  EX pump  Endocytosis  Taking in of matter by invagination of its membrane to form a vacuole  Phagocytosis o The intake of solids  Pinocytosis o The intake of liquids o Composition  Made of a phospholipid bilayer  Cholesterol  Made in liver  Found in the membrane, holding it together [outside of Peripheral cell] protein Phospha En P te zy u Por me m e/c ha Fatty nn acids el proteinral [inside of cell]  Phosphate o “loves” water o hydrophilic  Fatty acid tails o “hates” water o Impermeable to water and water soluble ions/molecules o Hydrophobic  EX a room o The doors, windows and vents are like proteins o The walls are the phospholipids  Proteins o Functional instead of structural  Like the doors, windows, and vents of a room o The “brains” and “organizers” of a cell and your body o Used for tissue repair, building tissue, etc o Made of  Amino group—Carbon chain—carboxyl group R R  NH —2—C—COOH o Peripheral proteins  Directly on the inside of the cell or directly on the outside of the cell  Receptors o Integral (trans-membranous) proteins  Pumps  In the thyroid there is an iodine pump  EX NaK pumper o 3 Na to 2 K  EX chloride and magnesium pumps  EX pump in the thyroid that brings in iodine (the only iodine pump in the body)  Requires ATP o Active transport o  Pore/channel  Peripheral proteins attached  Functional molecule that might serve as an enzyme o There are 10 types of amino acids o They are bonded together via peptide bonds o Serve as enzymes and buffers o Enzymes  Lowers the activation energy of a reaction  EX  Sucrose o A disaccharide made of 1 glucose and 1 fructose o Hydrolysis (water is added) is made possible by the enzyme sucrase o When it was bonded together, it released water (dehydration)  Maltose o Breaks down into 2 glucoses via maltase  Galactose  E+S  ESC  P & E  Enzyme + substrate  Enzyme substrate complex  product & enzyme  Speeds up a reaction Sucro GlucoFructo se se   Sucra se  Buffers o Molecules that help to maintain the pH in the extracellular fluid, blood plasma and inside the cell (intracellular buffers) o 7.35-7.45 is our body’s normal pH range o All proteins have the potential to be a buffer  They have the ability to pick up hydrogen ions and give hydrogen ions  EX Partially charged ion Neutral protein that Picks up hydrogen ions This makes it more acidic R R N +H 2C—C— COOH - NH 3C—C—COOH  EX negatively charged ion R R N H 2C—C—COOH - NH 2C—C—COOH - o Prevents alkalosis (high pH) and acidosis (low pH) o The H is “wild” and has to be controlled + o Buffers “pick up” the H so they won’t destroy the cell  Resting membrane potential o -70 mv because of sulfates, phosphates and negative proteins on the inside of the cell Na+ [outside of proteinral cell] Phospha En P Closed channel te zy u Por me m e/c ha Fatty nn el acids Closed channel Peripheral protein [inside of cell] K+ Charge: -70 mv - SO 4- PO 4 Proteins -  Depolarization o Na goes into the cell because there is a concentration gradient and opposite charges o At +30 there is a voltage disruption o K rushes out Na + ? Signaling molecule ? [outside of proteinral cell] Phospha En P Open channel te zy u Na me m cha nn Fatty el acids Closed chaPeripheral protein [inside of cell] Charge: Na +30 mv +  Hyperpolarization o K rushes out K + [outside of cell] Phospha En P channel te zy u K me m cha nn Fatty el acids Open cPeripheral protein [inside of K Charge: -90 mv cell] +  Repolarization o Leaky K channels  Allow K into the cell 2 K+ 3 Na+ [outside of Peripheral cell] Phospha En P protein channel te zy u Por me m e/c ha Fatty nn acids Closed channel proteinral [inside of Charge: -70 mv cell] 2 3 Na+  Lysosomes K+ o Has a single layer of phospholipids H+  Which is side is on the inside? pump H + o Needs to be acidic on the inside to work best o Called “suicide packets  If the phospholipid layer is broken, then the cell will be destroyed  Peroxisomes o Takes care of free radicals  Neutralizes them o Unstable metabolic…? o Uses molecular oxygen to oxidize free radicals  Mitochondria o The number in a cell  Depends on the kind of cell  EX muscle cells have more than adipose cells  Can be conditioned to make more  Exercise Cytos o The size depends on ol  The kind of cell  EX larger in cardiac cells o Mitochondrial DNA is from mother  It has its own DNA o Reproduce themselves by fission o Glucose is our source of energy Phospholipid bilayer Site of electron transport  ER o Granular  Has ribosomes attached  Polyribosomes?  Involved in protein synthesis o Agranular  Involved in the making of cholesterol derived products  Hormones and steroids  Ribosomes o Doesn’t have a membrane o Has two subunits Enzy  Large me  Enzyme rRN  Small A  rRNA Microvi Columnar lli cells Villu  Microvilli Column Microtubul s ar es o Increase surface cell area  Villus o Increase surface area  Flagella o Made of an arrangement of microtubules o EX sperm  Microtubules o A type of infrastructure  Protein synthesis o Digestion  Breaks down proteins into individual amino acids o Your body needs the proper enzymes to bring amino acids together  Nutrients o Carbs  EX  Glucose  Sucrose  Glycogen o Used as storage in humans  Starch o Used in storage in plants  Foods  Potatoes  Pasta  Fruits  Veggies  Complex vs simple sugars  Simple o Empty calories o Proteins  Foods  Meat  Eggs  Make up enzymes  Not a preferred source of energy  Synthesis  tra o Lipids  Fatty acid + glycerol  If broken down  A free acid is not good  Not a clean source of energy  Atherosclerosis  The hardening of the arteries  Plaque build-up  LDLs  Low density lipoproteins Fa Protei n  “bad” fat t  HDLs  High density lipoprotein  “good” fat Protei Fa  helps retrieve LDLs form the n bloodstream o Nucleic acids  Made of nucleotides  Makes up DNA and RNA  Lactose Intolerance o Lactose is a disaccharide o Found in milk and other dairy products Lacto Gseco Galacto se se   Lacta se o Enzyme + substrate = enzyme substrate complex o Hydrolysis is used to break down lactose o Product  Galactose + glucose  The glucose is used in the cells for energy  The galactose goes to the liver where it is transformed into glucose o Some don’t make the enzyme lactase o The lactase is not broken down o It goes into the colon where there are bacteria o The bacteria break the lactase down, which leads to diarrhea and gas  PKU o Some don’t make the enzyme that breaks down PKU [phenylalanine hydroxylase  (PAH)] o This causes a harmful intermediate metabolic product to be made  It can pass through the brain barrier and cause retardation o In diet drinks  Cellular respiration o Produces ATP o ATP molecule in various states of being  A—P—P~~P  ADP  A—P—P  A—P  CAMP o ~~ is a high energy bond that is used to do work o All nutrients can feed into the carbohydrate pathway o Products  Heat  CO 2  Water  Energy o Carb pathway  Glycolysis  Happens in the cytoplasm/cytosol  Produces 4 total ATP  Produces 2 net ATP  Anaerobic o Does not require O 2  Inefficient  Glucose is split in 2 o Glucose  2 pyruvic acids (3C) + heat + 2 net ATP o Takes 10 enzymes  Citric acid cycle/crebs cycle o Happens in the outer matrix of the mitochondria o 8H per 1 pyruvate (one turn of the crebs cycle)  total 16H  2 ATP are made per H in the ETC  total 32 ATP made o By products  Co2 and heat o Steps C 1 pyruvic acid (3C) Acetyl C + H C o + O (2C) A Acetyl (2C) + = Oxaloacetic acid Citric acid (4C) (6C) 2 H 2 H 2 H 2 H  Electron transport chain o Happens in the inner matrix of the mitochondria o The 8 hydrogen from the Creb cycle are removed and brought to the inner matrix of the mitochondria  They are ionized  The energy is trapped in ADP + inorganic phosphate (ATP) [stored energy] o Concentration gradient o By products  Heat  Water  Final electron acceptor is O2  4 ATP ???   Transcription o DNA → mRNA → tRNA o rNA o Nucleotide  The nitrogenous base, a 5-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group  The building block of nucleic acids  Linked by a phosphodiester bond o RNA  Adenine and Guanine  Cytosine and Uracil o DNA  Adenine and Guanine  Cytosine and Thiamine o Tripeptide  A peptide made of three amino acids  Joined by a peptide bond o Polypeptide  A peptide made of many amino acids  Form part of (or the whole of) a protein molecule o Triplet  A group of three bases on DNA  Makes one codon on mRNA  Protein synthesis o Message to make a protein o Parent strand of DNA- bonds break o mRNA pairs with DNA strand  Transcription  DNA→ mRNA  Codon  3 base pairs of o Bonds between the DNA and mRNA are broken o mRNA leaves the nucleus through a pore in the nuclear envelope and goes to the ribosomes on the rough ER (small subunit (rRNA) and large subunit (enzyme)) o the ribosome “reads” the mRNA so it can find base pairs o The tRNA brings the base pairs and pairs the amino acids with the mRNA o 3 base pairs = 1 amino acid o Enzymes form bonds between the amino acids o A protein is formed o If made on a polyribosome (not on ER), stays in the cell o If not, it goes to the Golgi to be packaged and excreted o Translation  mRNA → protein A—T Codes for one codon on Triple T—A mRNA G—C ts C—G G—C Codes for one codon on mRNA T—A A—T A—T Codes for one codon on C—G mRNA FINISH PROTEIN SYNTHESIS NOTES  Tissues o Histology  The study of tissues o Tissue  Aggregation of similar cells and their products that will do something for you that an individual cell can’t o More than one tissue makes an organ o More than one organ makes an organ system o More than one system makes an organism o There are 4 different kinds of tissue  Epithelial  Covers and lines o EX  Skin  Nose  Mouth  Orifices  Coverings of organs  Glands o Secrete hormones, enzymes, metabolites, etc. o Endocrine  Makes and secretes substances that going into the blood  EX of a secretory substance  Hormones  “Ductless” glands  Isolated small blocks of tissue o Exocrine  Oil and sweat glands  A group of secretory cells  Cells have many Golgi bodies  Retain ducts to body surfaces  Found in the large intestines and uterine glands  EXS  Oil  Sweat  Mammary  Lacrimal  Sebaceous  Unicellular  EX goblet cells makes and excretes mucus  Multicellular  Tubular o Simple cuboidal cells making a product Excretory substance from a tubular multicellular endocrine gland  Acinar o EX cells of the pancreas that produce pancreatic enzymes o Line an acinus (a small lobule of a compound gland) o Flask-shaped o Made of simple cuboidal cells Excretory substance from Aceniar multicellular endocrine gland  Compound tubular (branched tubular?) o EX sweat gland Excretory substance from compound tubular multicellular endocrine gland o Ways that glands release their substances  Holocrine  The cells in the center die  The dead cells (made of fat from the phospholipid membrane) are released as a product  Cells become a part of the product  EX sebaceous and oil glands  ?? Infected boil ??  ?? reproduction of cells ??  Merocrine  Cell does not become a part of the product  EX  Pancreas o Beta and alpha cells release pancreatic enzymes that aid in digestion  Salivary glands Excretory substance  Apocrine o The product produced is made from the apical part of the cells (the part of the membrane that faces the lumen) o The cell repairs itself and repeats the process o EX mammary glands  Cells are close together  Has desmosomes between them o Tight junctions?  Has little matrix o Not much extracellular “stuff”  Avascular o No capillaries o Little nutrients  Has a basement membrane o Made of chemicals, not cells  EX simple columnar o Lines entire intestinal system (except the esophagus) o One layer thick o Duanum- intestines?  Helps efficiency in digestion  Secretion and absorption  Tight junction  Helps keep food etc from going into the connective tissue  Put in pic Lumen space) Microvi lli Tight junctions Goblet cells (make mucous) Basement Nucle membrane us Connective Tissue Simple cuboidal Nucle  Simple cuboidal us o Secretion and absorption o Kidney tubules  Filters o Cells are shaped like a cube Kidn ey  Simple squamous o One cell thick o Scale-like  Good at filtration and diffusion o Short and flat o EX nume  Lungs- alveolar sacks  Capillaries  Skin? Simple squamous epithelium  Stratified squamous Basement o Skin membrane? Duodenu o Esophagus m o Protection o Flat cells Nucleu  Pseudostratified s columnar o Lines the trachea Pseudostratified o Ciliated columnarent  Catches dust, membrane ash, etc. so it doesn’t go into the ? o Every cell touches the basement membrane  Transitional o Lines urinary bladder and ?walls? of urinary system o They are moveable and flexible o Cells slide past one another  Nothing holding them together o No desmosomes, gap junctions, etc. o No spaces because it needs to snap back into uniformity quickly o Could be squamous, cuboidal, etc. Empty Full  Stratified squamous o EX skin  Connective  The “glue” that holds other tissues together  It is never on a free surface  Vascular  Cells are scattered in a matrix that is made by the cells  Ranges from watery to hard  Blood → loose areolar connective tissue → dense regular and irregular connective tissue → cartilage → bone o Adipose is scattered throughout these  Loose areolar connective tissue Fibrobla o EX under the epithelium that lines the small st intestines Basement membrane Collagen fibers Matri x Plas ma Muscle or bone  Fibroblast o Makes and lives in the matrix o “Blast” = reproduces and makes things o Makes collagen fibers  Fibers o Determined by fibroblasts o Are scattered throughout the matrix in all directions o If they are youthful and numerous, they will “bounce”  EX skin o If they are old, they won’t be as elastic  Matrix o Contains  Nerves  Blood vessels  Glands  Plasma  Lymphocytes (antibodies)  Macrophages (gobbles debris like antigens)  Mast cells (releases heparin- thinning agent that keeps the matrix at the right consistency)  Surround blood vessels, etc. for protection  Dense connective tissue o Has more fibers than loose areolar  The fibroblasts make many fibers  Dense irregular o Has randomly arranged fibers  Dense regular o EX Achilles heel  Fibers are crammed together and parallel  Fibers are arranged “randomly”  Does not contain many capillaries  Doesn’t heal well or quickly  Made of collagen fibers  A tendon connected to the calf muscle and femur  Adipose o Scattered throughout all connective tissue o Adipocyte  A single fat cell o In abdominal fat  Called an “apron”  Visceral fat  Covers major organs like the liver, pancreas and kidney  Releases cortisol, a stress hormone  Cartilage o Three types  Hyaline  EX o Nose o End of long bones o Attachment of ribs to sternum o Trachea o Clear and shiny o Lacunae  Spaces o Chondeoblasts  Cartilage making cells  Turn into chondrocytes?  Cell makes matrix and then traps itself in it  Release collagen fibers that don’t stain  Collagen is a protein  Has a firm matrix with no blood vessels  Does not repair itself  Fibrocartilage  Pubic symphysis  Intervertebral disks in the spinal cord  Elastic  EX ear Chondeoblas Lacuna e ts Collagen fibers Dense irregular tissue  Muscular  Function o Contractility  Cells shorten, lengthen, and return to their original state of being  Cells form from a process called myogenesis  3 kinds o Skeletal  Striated  Voluntary  Found near/around almost every part of your body  Especially near bone, cartilage, and skin  Has an abundance of blood vessels and nerves o Smooth  Visceral  Lines the stomach, blood vessels, intestines, bladder, etc.  Non-striated  No sarcomeres  Involuntary o Cardiac  Found in the heart  Involuntary  Striated  Cross striations  Formed by rotating segments of thick and thin protein filaments  Characteristics of striated muscles o Transverse tubules  Nervous  Nervous tissues made of different kinds of neurons  Don’t reproduce freely o Vulnerable  Motor neurons o Located in the CNS o 3 main parts  Dendrite  “Branches” out from the cell body  Receive signals from the brain and spinal cord  Cell body  Axon  A long thin fiber that extends form the cell body  Conducts electrical impulses that signal the muscles to contract  Neuroglial cells o Supportive cells to neurons o 4 types  Oligodendrocytes  Support and insulation to axons  Make the myelin sheath  Ependymal cells  Forms the epithelial lining of the cavities in the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord  Microglial  Mediate immune responses in the CNS  Clear cellular debris and dead neurons through phagocytosis  Astrocytes  Provide structural and metabolic support  Aids with blood flow in the brain  Regulation of ions in the extracellular space  CNS repair  Helps to form the blood-brain barrier  Membrane o Made from a layer of epithelial and connective tissue o 4 types  Mucous  Lines body cavities and tubular organs (like the gut and respiratory passages)  Lines spaces that open to the outside world  Secretes mucous  Epithelial + Loose connective tissue Mucous Basement membrane membrane Connective tissue  Serous  Lines spaces  Covers organs that don’t open to the outside world  Thin because there is little abrasion  Releases watery substances so that organs can slip and slide   Synovial  Cutaneous 


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