Chapter 8 Notes
Chapter 8 Notes General Chemistry 0110
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Lee on Wednesday March 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to General Chemistry 0110 at University of Pittsburgh taught by in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 197 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 03/11/15
General Chemistry 0110 Chapter 8 Notes A Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle a Beam of hydrogen atoms into magnetic eld split into two different directions to give magnetic spin of or 12 i Split because of two different orientations 1 S to N I 12 2 N to S l 12 b Electron con guration particular distribution of electrons among the available subshells i Subshell consists of group of orbitals having same n and l quantum numbers but different m values c Orbital diagram diagram to show how the orbitals of a subshell are occupied by electrons i Electrons shown by arrow d Pauli exclusion principle no two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers i Cannot place two electrons with same value of m in orbital ii Only two possible values of m orbital can hold no more than two electrons both must have opposite spins B BuildingUp principle and the Periodic table a Atom has in nite number of possibly electron con gurations associated with lowest energy level of atom corresponds to ground state or excited states b Buildingup principle Aufbau principle a scheme used to reproduce the electron con gurations of the ground states of atoms by successively lling subshells with electrons in a speci c order the buildingup order i Energy depends only on n and I ll Ground state con gurations determined by total energies of atoms Noble gases unreactive because p subshell is lled Noblegas core innershell con guration corresponding to one of the noble gases e Pseudonoblegas core noblegas core together with n 1d10 electrons i Electrons usually are not involved in chemical reactions f Valence electron electron in an atom outside the noble gas or pseudonoblegas core i Involved in chemical reactions and similarities among con gurations of valence electrons an g Con guration predicted by buildingup principle is very close in energy to groundstate con guration C Writing Electron Con gurations using Periodic table a b Pattern in lling subshells of elements use periodic table to build up con guration If con guration arranged by shells orbitals ordered by energy subshells describe chemical reactivity c Valence electrons obtained by group number D Orbital Diagrams of Atoms Hund s Rule a Hund39s Rule the lowestenergy arrangement of electrons in a subshell is obtained by putting electrons into separate orbitals of the subshell with the same spin before pairing electrons Opposite spin cancels each other out Paramagnetic Substance substance that is weakly attracted by a magnetic eld and this attraction is generally the result of unpaired electrons Diamagnetic substance a substance that is not attracted by a magnetic eld or is very slightly repelled by such a eld property generally means that substance has only paired electrons i Mercury vapor has only paired electrons E Some Periodic Properties a b Periodic Law when elements are arranged by atomic number their physical and chemical properties vary periodically Atomic Radius maximum in radial distribution function of the outer shell of the atom i Can also produce empirically determined covalent bond distances ii Atomic Covalent Radius value for that atom in a set of covalent radii assigned to atoms in such a way that the sum of the covalent radii of atoms A and B predicts the approximate AB bond length Within each period horizontal row atomic radius tends to decrease with increasing atomic number nuclear charge Largest atom in period is Group IA and smallest is noblegas atom Within each group vertical column atomic radius tends to increase with period number Principal quantum number determines size of outermost orbital Nuclear charge acting on electron determines size i Increasing effective nuclear charge reduces size of orbital pulling electron inward g Effective nuclear charge positive charge that an electron experiences from nucleus equal to nuclear charge but reduced by any shielding or screening from any intervening electron distribution i Effective nuclear charge increases because nuclear charge increases and number of core electrons remains constant h First ionization energy rst ionization potential minimum energy needed to remove the highestenergy that is outermost electron from neutral atom in the gaseous state i For one mole of atoms Kjmol i Within a period ionization energy increases with atomic numbers i Lowest energy is in Group IA metals lose electrons easily ii Largest ionization energy is noble gas elements because stable and lose electrons with difficulty j Energy needed to remove electron from outer shell is proportional to effective nuclear charge divided by average distance between electron and nucleus inversely proportional to effective nuclear charge k Ionization energy equal to square of effective nuclear charge I Ionization energy decreases going down column of main group elements i Ionization increases as more electrons are removed m Large jump from 2 to 3 ionization energy level second ionization is removing electron from 25 but third ionization removes from core of atom at ls which is noblegas con guration n Line to correspond to removal of electrons 0 Electron Af nity energy required to remove an electron from the atom s negative ion in ground state i Positive in stable negative ion forms neutral atom picks up electrons easily F Periodicity in the MainGroup Elements a
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