New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 13 notes

by: Kirsten Swikert

Chapter 13 notes Psychology 100

Kirsten Swikert
GPA 3.2

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

class notes over chapter 13
Intro to Psychology
Mark Graves
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Intro to Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kirsten Swikert on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 100 at Western Kentucky University taught by Mark Graves in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Western Kentucky University.


Reviews for Chapter 13 notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/26/16
Abnormal Behavior • Cultural bases of abnormal behavior o Important to consider cultural context o Judgments of what is abnormal behavior can change over time • Models of abnormal behavior o Early beliefs: demonic possession § Ancient treatments: exorcism, being caged like animals, being beaten, burned, float test, cut hole in skull o Medical model: underlying physical disorders or disease o Psychological models: psychodynamic, behaviorist, humanistic, cognitive o Sociocultural model: the social and cultural contexts in which it occurs o Biopsychosocial model • The diathesis-stress model • Prevalence of psychological disorders • Classification of mental disorders: distinctive patterns of abnormal behavior that involve disturbances of mood, behavior, thought processes, or perception and that result in significant personal distress or impaired functioning o DSM-5: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5 th Edition) Anxiety Related Disorders • Anxiety disorders: a class of disorders marked by chronic, troublesome feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety o Phobias o Panic disorder o Generalized anxiety disorder o Obsessive-compulsive disorder o Post-traumatic stress disorder • Phobia: marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger o Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) o Specific phobia o Agoraphobia o Examples: § Agoraphobia: fear of crowded, public places § Acrophobia: fear of high places § Claustrophobia: fear of close, tight places § Aerophobia: fear of flying § Melissophobia: fear of bees § Ailurophobia: fear of cats § Cynophobia: fear of dogs § Amaxophobia: fear of vehicles, driving § Astraphobia: fear of lightning § Brontophobia: fear of storms § Gamophobia: fear of marriage § Hydrophobia: fear of water • Panic disorder: a type of anxiety disorder involving repeated episodes of sheer terror called panic attacks • Generalized anxiety disorder: marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat most of the time and unable to specify o “Free-floating anxiety” o Shakiness o Unable to relax o Fidgeting • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): marked by repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and actions (compulsions) that cause distress o Obsessions: nagging, intrusive thoughts o Compulsions: repetitive behaviors or rituals compelled to perform • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): can be suffered by war veterans as well as those who have survived accidents, disasters, or assaults and is show in the following symptoms: o Haunting memories o Nightmares o Social withdrawal o Jumpy anxiety o Sleep problems • Biological factors of anxiety disorders o Twin and adoption studies o Amygdala and limbic system o Biochemical changes in the brain (GABA) o Disturbed brain circuitry • Cognitive factors of anxiety disorders Dissociative and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders • Dissociative identity disorder: commonly called multiple personality or split personality, involves the emergence in one person of two or more alternate personalities (called “alters”) • Dissociative Amnesia: significant and unusual loss of personality relevant memories, no identifiable physical cause, often follows some sort of psychologically traumatic event • Dissociative fugue: individual not only develops amnesia, but also unexpectedly travels away from home and assumes a new identity • Somatic symptom and related disorders: physical ailments that cannot be explained by organic conditions o People with these disorders are not simply faking an illness, which would be termed malingering and is not classifiable as a mental or psychological disorder • Conversion disorder: characterized by a significant loss of physical function with no apparent organic basis, usually in a single organ system o Somatic symptom disorder (hypochondriasis): characterized by excessive preoccupation with health concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illnesses Mood Disorders • A class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes • Major depressive disorder: marked by profound sadness, slowed thought processes, low self-esteem, and loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure o Also called unipolar depression • Bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder): characterized by alternating phases of manic episodes and depressive episodes o Manic episodes: euphoria, talkative, restless, excited, argumentative o Depressive episodes: similar to an episode of major depressive disorder • Cognitive factors in depression • Cognitive distortions linked to depression o All or nothing thinking o Misplaced blame o Misfortune telling o Negative focusing o Dismissing the positives o Jumping to conclusions o Catastrophizing o Emotion-based reasoning o Shouldisms o Name calling o Mistaken responsibility • Factors in suicide o Closely linked to mood disorders, especially deep feelings of hopelessness o Serotonin irregularities may result in a disinhibition effect o Drug and alcohol dependence o Lack of coping responses o Linked to exit events o Teens and copycat suicides • Myths about suicide o People who threaten suicide are only seeking attention o A person must be insane to attempt suicide o Talking about suicide with a depressed person may prompt the person to attempt it o People who attempt suicide and fail aren’t serious about killing themselves o If someone threatens suicide, it is best to ignore it so as not to encourage repeated threats Schizophrenia • Involves severe disturbances in thought that spill over to affect perceptual, social, and emotional processes o Includes: § Irrational, disjointed thought processes § Delusions (grandeur, persecution, reference, control) § Hallucinations o Affects about 1% of the general population o Somewhat more common in men o Typically develops in late adolescence or early adulthood and follows a lifelong course • Positive symptoms: symptoms of schizophrenia involving behavioral excesses, such as hallucinations and delusions • Negative symptoms: behavioral deficits associated with schizophrenia, such as withdrawal and apathy • Types: o Disorganized type: involves a particularly severe deterioration of § Adaptive behavior (delusions and hallucinations with no recognizable meaning) § Incoherence and disorganized behavior (speak gibberish, dress outlandishly, ritualized movements) § Virtually complete social withdrawal o Catatonic type: marked by striking motor disturbances ranging from immobility to frenzied motor activity § Catatonic excitement: the person paces frantically, speaks incoherently, and engages in stereotyped movements § Catatonic stupor: the person might become mute and barely move, possibly freezing in positions for hours or days § Waxy flexibility: they can be moved from one frozen pose to another o Paranoid type: dominated by delusions of persecution, auditory hallucinations, and suspiciousness § In more extreme cases, people with paranoid schizophrenia might feel so threatened that they become violent • Biological factors in schizophrenia o Excess dopamine activity has been implicated as a possible cause of schizophrenia • Causes of schizophrenia o Genetic factors § Biochemical imbalances § Brain abnormalities o Psychosocial influences § Stressful life experiences § Diathesis stress model revisited Personality Disorders • Involve overly rigid patterns of behavior that interfere with the ability to adapt to demands in the environment and interpersonal functioning o Paranoid: lack of trust in others, suspicious § They are mistrustful of others and their social relationships suffer for it, and may be suspicious of coworkers and bosses o Schizoid o Schizotypal o Antisocial § Symptoms: disregard for rules, lack of concern for others, act on impulse, typically irresponsible, lack remorse, may be highly intelligent and charming, found more often among men o Borderline § Symptoms: turbulent moods, stormy relationships with others, difficulty controlling emotions, unstable self-image o Histrionic o Narcissistic o Avoidant o Dependent o Obsessive-compulsive Suicide Prevention • Recognize the seriousness of the situation • Take implied threats seriously • Express understanding • Focus on alternatives • Assess the immediate danger • Enlist the person’s agreement to seek help • Accompany the person to seek help


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.