Chapter 13 notes
Chapter 13 notes Psychology 100
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kirsten Swikert on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 100 at Western Kentucky University taught by Mark Graves in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 04/26/16
Abnormal Behavior • Cultural bases of abnormal behavior o Important to consider cultural context o Judgments of what is abnormal behavior can change over time • Models of abnormal behavior o Early beliefs: demonic possession § Ancient treatments: exorcism, being caged like animals, being beaten, burned, float test, cut hole in skull o Medical model: underlying physical disorders or disease o Psychological models: psychodynamic, behaviorist, humanistic, cognitive o Sociocultural model: the social and cultural contexts in which it occurs o Biopsychosocial model • The diathesis-stress model • Prevalence of psychological disorders • Classification of mental disorders: distinctive patterns of abnormal behavior that involve disturbances of mood, behavior, thought processes, or perception and that result in significant personal distress or impaired functioning o DSM-5: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5 th Edition) Anxiety Related Disorders • Anxiety disorders: a class of disorders marked by chronic, troublesome feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety o Phobias o Panic disorder o Generalized anxiety disorder o Obsessive-compulsive disorder o Post-traumatic stress disorder • Phobia: marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger o Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) o Specific phobia o Agoraphobia o Examples: § Agoraphobia: fear of crowded, public places § Acrophobia: fear of high places § Claustrophobia: fear of close, tight places § Aerophobia: fear of flying § Melissophobia: fear of bees § Ailurophobia: fear of cats § Cynophobia: fear of dogs § Amaxophobia: fear of vehicles, driving § Astraphobia: fear of lightning § Brontophobia: fear of storms § Gamophobia: fear of marriage § Hydrophobia: fear of water • Panic disorder: a type of anxiety disorder involving repeated episodes of sheer terror called panic attacks • Generalized anxiety disorder: marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat most of the time and unable to specify o “Free-floating anxiety” o Shakiness o Unable to relax o Fidgeting • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): marked by repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and actions (compulsions) that cause distress o Obsessions: nagging, intrusive thoughts o Compulsions: repetitive behaviors or rituals compelled to perform • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): can be suffered by war veterans as well as those who have survived accidents, disasters, or assaults and is show in the following symptoms: o Haunting memories o Nightmares o Social withdrawal o Jumpy anxiety o Sleep problems • Biological factors of anxiety disorders o Twin and adoption studies o Amygdala and limbic system o Biochemical changes in the brain (GABA) o Disturbed brain circuitry • Cognitive factors of anxiety disorders Dissociative and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders • Dissociative identity disorder: commonly called multiple personality or split personality, involves the emergence in one person of two or more alternate personalities (called “alters”) • Dissociative Amnesia: significant and unusual loss of personality relevant memories, no identifiable physical cause, often follows some sort of psychologically traumatic event • Dissociative fugue: individual not only develops amnesia, but also unexpectedly travels away from home and assumes a new identity • Somatic symptom and related disorders: physical ailments that cannot be explained by organic conditions o People with these disorders are not simply faking an illness, which would be termed malingering and is not classifiable as a mental or psychological disorder • Conversion disorder: characterized by a significant loss of physical function with no apparent organic basis, usually in a single organ system o Somatic symptom disorder (hypochondriasis): characterized by excessive preoccupation with health concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illnesses Mood Disorders • A class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes • Major depressive disorder: marked by profound sadness, slowed thought processes, low self-esteem, and loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure o Also called unipolar depression • Bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder): characterized by alternating phases of manic episodes and depressive episodes o Manic episodes: euphoria, talkative, restless, excited, argumentative o Depressive episodes: similar to an episode of major depressive disorder • Cognitive factors in depression • Cognitive distortions linked to depression o All or nothing thinking o Misplaced blame o Misfortune telling o Negative focusing o Dismissing the positives o Jumping to conclusions o Catastrophizing o Emotion-based reasoning o Shouldisms o Name calling o Mistaken responsibility • Factors in suicide o Closely linked to mood disorders, especially deep feelings of hopelessness o Serotonin irregularities may result in a disinhibition effect o Drug and alcohol dependence o Lack of coping responses o Linked to exit events o Teens and copycat suicides • Myths about suicide o People who threaten suicide are only seeking attention o A person must be insane to attempt suicide o Talking about suicide with a depressed person may prompt the person to attempt it o People who attempt suicide and fail aren’t serious about killing themselves o If someone threatens suicide, it is best to ignore it so as not to encourage repeated threats Schizophrenia • Involves severe disturbances in thought that spill over to affect perceptual, social, and emotional processes o Includes: § Irrational, disjointed thought processes § Delusions (grandeur, persecution, reference, control) § Hallucinations o Affects about 1% of the general population o Somewhat more common in men o Typically develops in late adolescence or early adulthood and follows a lifelong course • Positive symptoms: symptoms of schizophrenia involving behavioral excesses, such as hallucinations and delusions • Negative symptoms: behavioral deficits associated with schizophrenia, such as withdrawal and apathy • Types: o Disorganized type: involves a particularly severe deterioration of § Adaptive behavior (delusions and hallucinations with no recognizable meaning) § Incoherence and disorganized behavior (speak gibberish, dress outlandishly, ritualized movements) § Virtually complete social withdrawal o Catatonic type: marked by striking motor disturbances ranging from immobility to frenzied motor activity § Catatonic excitement: the person paces frantically, speaks incoherently, and engages in stereotyped movements § Catatonic stupor: the person might become mute and barely move, possibly freezing in positions for hours or days § Waxy flexibility: they can be moved from one frozen pose to another o Paranoid type: dominated by delusions of persecution, auditory hallucinations, and suspiciousness § In more extreme cases, people with paranoid schizophrenia might feel so threatened that they become violent • Biological factors in schizophrenia o Excess dopamine activity has been implicated as a possible cause of schizophrenia • Causes of schizophrenia o Genetic factors § Biochemical imbalances § Brain abnormalities o Psychosocial influences § Stressful life experiences § Diathesis stress model revisited Personality Disorders • Involve overly rigid patterns of behavior that interfere with the ability to adapt to demands in the environment and interpersonal functioning o Paranoid: lack of trust in others, suspicious § They are mistrustful of others and their social relationships suffer for it, and may be suspicious of coworkers and bosses o Schizoid o Schizotypal o Antisocial § Symptoms: disregard for rules, lack of concern for others, act on impulse, typically irresponsible, lack remorse, may be highly intelligent and charming, found more often among men o Borderline § Symptoms: turbulent moods, stormy relationships with others, difficulty controlling emotions, unstable self-image o Histrionic o Narcissistic o Avoidant o Dependent o Obsessive-compulsive Suicide Prevention • Recognize the seriousness of the situation • Take implied threats seriously • Express understanding • Focus on alternatives • Assess the immediate danger • Enlist the person’s agreement to seek help • Accompany the person to seek help
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