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by: Jessica Lynn

MANA CH. 13 MANA 3318

Jessica Lynn

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Chapter 13 Notes
Organization Behavior
Dr. Baldwin
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Lynn on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MANA 3318 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Baldwin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Organization Behavior in Business at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 04/26/16
Friday, April 22, 2016 Chapter 13 Conflicts and Negotiations - Conflict - any situation in which incompatible goals, attitudes, emotions, or behaviors lead to disagreement or opposition between two or more parties. - Causes of Conflict in Organizations two factors: • Structural Factors - nature of an organization and the way in which work is organized - Specialization - when jobs are highly specialized, employees become experts at certain tasks; people have little awareness of the tasks that others perform - Interdependence - requires groups or individuals to depend on one another to accomplish goals; it becomes very easy to blame the other party when they’re work isn’t going smoothly - Common Resources - anytime multiple parties share resources and those resources become scarce, conflict arises - Goal Differences - when work groups have different goals, which may be incompatible - Authority Relationships - traditional boss-employee relationships may have issues consisting of those who don’t like being told what to do, as well as whose that resent authority - Status Inconsistencies - instances where management receives certain privileges that non-management do not, may lead to resentment - Jurisdictional Ambiguities - unclear lines of responsibility within an organization; calling a company and being transferred to several different people • Personal Factors - differences among individuals - Skills and Abilities - diversity in skills can lead to conflict when experienced employees may find it difficult to work with unskilled recruits; new boss straight from college may know how to manage people, but know nothing about the product 1 Friday, April 22, 2016 - Personalities - considered realities in organizations; abrasiveness is often hard to work with due to being so achievement oriented that they ignore the interpersonal aspects of work and the feelings of colleagues - Perceptions - the reward system can create conflicts if managers provide what they think employees want rather than what they actually want - Values and Ethics - differs in the workplace; there are those who seek approval from their coworkers and work hard to receive that, then there are those that don’t care for approval and will work on their own values and ethics - Emotions - how one perceives a negotiation which leads how they respond to that negotiation - Communication Barriers - physical separation and language can lead to distortions in messages; value judgment is when the listener assigns worth to a message before hearing it - a manager may not assign a message important that they are about to receive from an employee that always complains - Cultural Differences - stem from a lack of understanding the culture of another - Forms of Conflict in Organizations - Intra- vs. Inter- • Intra-: within 1 Inter-: between 2+ • • Inter[organizational] Conflict - conflict that occurs between two or more organizations; 2+ • Inter[group] Conflict - conflict that occurs between groups or teams in an organization; 2+ • Intra[group] Conflict - conflict that occurs within groups or teams; 1 only • Interpersonal Conflict - conflict that occurs between two or more individuals; 2+ • Intrapersonal Conflict - conflict that occurs within an individual; 1 only - Types of Intrapersonal Conflicts • Interrole Conflict - a person’s experience of conflict among the multiple roles in his or her life; 2+ roles 2 Friday, April 22, 2016 • Intrarole Conflict - conflict that occurs within a single role, but receiving conflicting messages on how to perform the role; 1 roles, multiple performance expectations • Person-Role Conflict - conflict that occurs when an individual in a particular role is expected to perform behaviors that clash with his or her personal values; 1 role against personal values - Managing Interpersonal Conflicts • Recognize Defense Mechanisms • Develop Strategies to Deal with Difficult People - Aggressive Defense Mechanisms • Fixation - an individual keeps up a dysfunctional behavior that obviously will not solve the conflict; focus on the conflict itself • Displacement - an individual directs his or her anger towards someone who is not the source of the conflict • Negativism - a person responds with pessimism to any attempt at solving a problem; psychologists called “projection” - Compromise Defense Mechanisms Compensation - an individual attempts to make up for a negative situation by • devoting himself or herself to another pursuit with increased vigor; increased activity - “over compensate” • Identification - an individual patterns his or her behavior after another’s; “modeling” • Rationalization - a compromise mechanism characterized by trying to justify one’s behavior by constructing bogus reasons for it; excuses - Withdrawal Defense Mechanisms • Fight - physically escaping (flight); taking a day off after a blowup with the boss • Withdrawal - psychologically escaping (withdrawal) a conflict; “I don’t care anymore” attitude • Conversion - emotional conflicts are expressed in physical symptoms; results in headaches or even worse (most serious) • Fantasy - provides an escape from a conflict through daydreaming; may be there physically, but not there mentally 3 Friday, April 22, 2016 - Ineffective Techniques for Dealing with Conflict • Non-Action - doing nothing in hopes that the conflict will disappear • Secrecy - keeping a disagreement to themselves; eventually someone will spill and the other will find out through the grapevine; may also create suspicion • Administrative Orbiting - buying time (delay tactic); management telling those involved in the conflict that it is being worked on or they are still thinking about the issue • Due Process Non-Action - a procedure that is so time-consuming, costly and risky that no one will use it • Character Assassination - to label/discredit opponent; both parties usually lose - Effective Techniques for Dealing with Conflict • Subordinate Goals - putting company goals before their own goals in order to avoid conflict • Expanding Resources - provide more resources when they become scarce • Changing Personnel - transferring or firing the individual causing the conflict may be the best solution, done after due process Changing Structure - in the company/department itself • - integrator - hiring someone to be a neutral third party to open dialogue between those having difficultly communicating - cross-functional teams - bringing in employees from different departments helps reduce delays and allows many activities to be performed at the same time rather than sequentially • Confronting and Negotiating - Negotiation - a joint process of finding a mutually acceptable solution to a complex conflict - Approaches to Negotiation • Distributive Bargaining - the goals of the parties are in conflict, and each party seeks to maximize its resources; win-lose approach • Integrative Negotiation - the parties’ goals are not seen as mutually exclusive, but the focus is on both sides achieving their objectives; win-win approach 4 Friday, April 22, 2016 - Conflict Management Styles • Avoiding - deliberate decision to take no action on a conflict or to stay out of a conflict • Accommodating - concern that the other party’s goals be met but relatively unconcerned with getting own way • Competing - satisfying own interests; willing to do so at other party’s expense • Compromising - each party gives up something to reach a solution (seen the most) Collaborating - arriving at a solution agreeable to all through open and thorough • discussion 5


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