March 10 Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amalia Cristiano on Wednesday March 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 21648 at San Diego State University taught by Hay in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 101 views.
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Date Created: 03/11/15
Holocaust Section II March 10 Exile and Escape MostJews living in Germany managed to get out before the Holocaust began 1933 over a half million Jews 1938 Germany took over Austria which added more Jewish people 700000 Jewish people but only about 250000 left when war began about two thirds got out Still was not easy to leave The Nazis made it difficult intentionally for them to emigrate Also not many places for German Jewish immigrants to go to in the world Bad economic times in the 19305 Great Depression lead to many countries not wanting to accept newcomers of any kind Emigration is never an easy thing to do especially when many generations ofJewish families First to Leave German Jews who left in 193334 Many were wealthy Jewish people who had connections in other countries business ties family friends etc Still possible for wealthy German Jews to get most of their money out of Germany in the early days Also those who lost their way of making a living teachers government officials those who worked for the media In some cases some German Jews who lost their ability to make a living also tended to have connections overseas Ex Albert Einstein who was a professor at a German university who lost his job but he had a good enough reputation to move elsewhere Those who worked in the media and performing arts moved to Hollywood Paci c Palisades was a distinct colony made up of German Jewish refugees who made large contributions to the quotclassic age of Hollywoodquot They worked in lm acting etc Also moved to places like New York and London Those who left early on numbered about 40000 relatively small number At this point the majority of German Jews did not see any real reason to emigrate unless their money or jobs was threatened 19351938 Where to Go Pressure forJews to leave only began to increase in 1935 with the passage of the Nuremburg Lawsmade it harder for German Jews to leave and be accepted into other countries In 1935 German government tried to nd ways to get Jews temporary passports called quotexit permitsquot In order to get one permission to enter another country already had to be granted very difficult Nazis learned how to prevent Jewish people from taking their money with them elsewhere called the Reich Flight Tax Rationale was that you did not want people to take their money out of Germany when they leave Required anybody who wanted to leave Germany to give Nazi state about 6070 of a person s wealth Meant to discourage people from leaving Most of the people who wanted to leave Germany were young or youngish wanted to have a life and younger people tend to not have as many connections or ties to the old country Most likely do not have wellestablished professions or businesses own property etc Older German Jews even after passage of Nuremburg Laws tended to stay and try to ride things out Older people have much more to leave behind and give up Most German Jews at this point still did not think that things would get that bad assume that Hitler will only last for a short time like leaders before him Four major destinations for German Jewish immigrants 1 Switzerland neutral territory Nazi Germany never had plans to conquer Switzerland Swiss very cautious about allowing Jews in because they did not want to anger the Nazis Could get into Switzerland if you had lots of money or if you could prove that you could perform a job that is needed in Switzerland Also if you could show you had a sponsor someone in Switzerland who could care for you Another way was to just go there could go with a business or tourist visa and then just overstay your visa Many German Jews practiced this Alternative would be to cross the border illegally but this was difficult due to mountainous terrain and few roads with Swiss officials guarding them Undocumented immigrants who were discovered even when the war broke out were sent back About 2025000 German Jews went to Switzerland 2 Great Britain Top of the list for many wouldbe immigrants Assumption that Britain would be safe Heavy restrictions on immigrants during the Great Depression Did not want immigrants taking jobs or relying on state welfare Were ways to get in sponsorship which the British were open to Active Jewish organizations in Britain especially London who helped to track down sponsors for migrants Also ifJews were willing to perform jobs that British people did not want such as domestic servants also if you spoke English Many welleducated professional German Jews went to Britain and worked as maids nannies and cooks could then be sponsors for their families back home to also immigrate Could also get in if you had a wellestablished reputation in some eld like the sciences or the arts Albert Einstein Also if you had money that you could get out of Germany British also lenient in granting political asylum if you could prove to the British that your life in your home country your life is in danger hard to prove Usually only get asylum in Britain in 1938 when things in Germany were getting really bad forJews Could also pull touristvisa trick or go there illegally British tended to be more lenient towards this About 100000 German and Austrian Jews went to the UK 3 Palestine ln 19305 it was a British colony Already a present of recent European Jewish immigrants because of the Zionist movement At rst Nazi government encouraged Jews to go to Palestine made it easier to leave and go there Entered into Ha auara Agreement signed in 1933 permitted as many as 40000 Jews to get out of Germany and go to Palestine every year Could even take money out but had to convert it to German products and then take them to Palestine where you could sell them and keep the money a way for Germany to increase its export business Up until 1935 no limits on immigrants to Palestine did stop in 1935 due to rising level of public violence between the Jews and the Arabs living in Palestine By the end of 1935 very dif cult for German Jews to get into Palestine Many people just went to Palestine illegally and ended up staying 4 United States By 19305 already had a substantial Jewish minority 1924 Immigration Act encouraged immigrants from Nordic countries and discouraged immigrants from Eastern Europe Also the era of the Great Depression not enough jobs or may need government bene ts Also the sentiment that Jewish people from Germany did not deserve any kind of special consideration Immigration Act had quotas for each country 90000 each year from Germany usually never lled Theoretically German Jews should have been allowed to ll this quota because due to Nuremburg Laws Jewish people living in Germany are not German citizens During the Depression years more people left than came in Was some antiSemitism in America many people said America should not make quotspecial rules forJewish people However was not that decisive a factor Could get in if you had a sponsor Jewish organizations set up sponsorships for German Jews to come to the US Also stood a good chance of getting in if you proved you could ll a laborneed One thing that did not help was family relationships Also tough in the 19305 forJewish people to claim political asylum Could also come here illegally but it was much tougher due to distance and they would check you out once you got off the ship could go to Mexico or Canada rst and then cross into the United States About 5060000 Jewish immigrants came to the United States during this time 19381939 Pressure Mounts By this time Nazi Germany was ramping up for war Anschluss means connection In this case it was the nation of Germany and the nation of Austria Germany took over this country in March 1938 Large Jewish minority living in Austria In the aftermath of this takeover Jewish people living in Austria had all the antiJewish laws dumped on them at once The thinking among many people was that if Hitler could just take over Austria then a big war was likely to start many people thought that they should probably try to get out SS Office forJewish Integration was opened after this Anschluss This was developed by the Nazi official Adolf Eichmann This office was taking control ofJewish affairs This office cut through a lot of red tape that immigration usually required to get Jews out Many Austrian Jews took this route However had to give the SS a lot of your wealth many people prepared to do so since war was imminent Nobody had yet thought of trying to massacre Jewish people yet Summer of 1938 international meeting was called to discuss the issue of German Jewish refugees called Evian Conference because they met in the resort town of Evian in France Did not accomplish much most countries refused to accept Jewish people except for Dominican Republic St Louis German passenger ship Scheduled to travel across the Atlantic from Germany to Cuba Designed to carry spying equipment Decided to ll the ship with Jewish refugees as well Jews who wanted to go had to pay huge sums of money about a half years income Arranged with the Cuban authorities that the Jewish people would be allowed to enter Cuba When it got to Cuba the Cubans had changed their mind about taking in the Jewish refugees Laid anchor in Havana harbor for about 2 weeks while negotiations took place Jewish people not even allowed to get off the ship Cubans nally said no Captain of the ship German sea captain had to nd somewhere else to go no one else would allow them in He tried the Caribbean Central America South America US ports Captain eventually had to decide to go back to Germany Some of the Jews tried to stage a mutiny on the ship but it did not work all 900 had to go back to Germany Of that 900 about 300 gured out some other way to get out of Germany About 600 most likely lost in the Holocaust Kinder Transport children s transport Began in the aftermath of the Kristallnacht attacks Not many attempts to loosen up immigration restrictions Various British organizations arranged for German children to come to Great Britain without their parents Children between the ages of 417 could go Broke up families and put German Jewish parents in position of having to give up their kids most never saw them again Children placed with foster families Any home willing to take in children were allowed Over 10000 children got out of Germany and Austria in 19381939 Vast majority of children went to Great Britain A few went to Holland or France Banned from going to the United States on the grounds that it would break up families Many of the parents of the Kinder Transport kids died in the Holocaust Shanghai Jews Some Jews went to Shanghai in China Had to travel by train east out of Germany into Russia and then down into China Shanghai was the key destination because it was a city that already had a major Western presence About 20000 Jews went there from Germany and Austria Set up their own little European area in the city Between 19391941 city was under the control of the Japanese but Japanese went out of their way to protect the Jewish people living in Shanghai Once you got there you were safe Shanghai Jews lived in peace and security After the war in 1945 most Jews went back to Germany and Austria WWII Begins Never would have been a Holocaust without WWII Created conditions in which certain Nazi of cials made certain decisions to massacre Jews With the war on emigration was impossible can not make Jews leave needed another solution Hitler s quotDrive to the Eastquot was his attempt to establish control deep into Eastern Europe Lebens Raum translated means quotliving spacequot Hitler wanted to create a greater Germany Basically just a bigger Germany Another key attraction with the plan to expand eastward was to bring together all ethnic Germans those thought to be German racially and culturally but lived in some other country Hitler ultimately hoped for a welluni ed puri ed community of Germans called the People s Community Likely that Hitler preferred to not go to war with Great Britain or France because they were in Western Europe Most of Europe s Jewish people also lived in Eastern Europe considered to be quotin the wayquot and a problem In Eastern Europe about 8 million Jews compared to the 700000 in Germany and Austria combined Drive to the East Began in March 1938 with the Anschluss Continued in 1939 with the German takeover of Czechoslovakia mostly nonviolently Attractive to Hitler because it had a large population of ethnic Germans Most of the people who lived there were not German they were Slavs By the summer of 1939 he had already gotten two countries his next target was Poland People of Poland knew at this time what Hitler was up to and they were ready to go to war Britain and France also made it clear they would declare war on Germany if Germany attempted to conquer Poland Hitler was con dent of a military victory over Poland and that Britain and France would not actually do anything In the summer of 1939 one nation that Hitler was concerned about was Soviet Russia or the USSR Over the summer of 1939 the Soviets and the Nazis negotiated a deal called the Nazi Soviet Pact It was a surprise to the outside world Among the major terms the Soviets promised not to assist Poland if Hitler decided to invade Pledged to divide all of Eastern Europe up in to two spheres of in uence Nazi one and Soviet one NaziSoviet Pact cleared the way for WWII WWII began on September 15 1939 Germany launched a massive attack against Poland Blitzkrieg which means quotlightning warquot Designed to completely overwhelm the opponent by forcing your opponent to panic run away and submit Nazis used huge numbers of big machines tanks airplanes that had not previously been used so heavily in warfare Poland was defeated within a month despite Poland having a relatively good army Germans and Soviets divided Poland between them Soviets received the Baltic States and the Eastern portion of Poland Baltic States included Estonia Latvia and Lithuania Massacres began in the Baltic States British and French did declare war on Germany after the blitzkrieg Following the conquest of Poland ghting took a pause mostly because of winter Spring of 1940 Hitler launched his blitzkrieg attacks again rst against Denmark and Norway and then in May of 1940 against the Netherlands Belgium and France All fairly easily victories especially against France so the British were unable to help By the end ofJune 1940 much of the continent of Europe was under Hitler s control Hitler s next target was Great Britain would be more difficult because there was water between the two countries Hitler s rst defeat came in the Battle of Britain Battle of Britain Summer and fall of 1940 Hitler s rst setback Germans would prepare the way for a national invasion using airplanes to soften Britain up and inspire fear in the local population Keep Calm and Carry On campaign Battle fought almost entirely in the air British airplanes quotwon the skiesquot they were able to chase German planes out of the sky After this battle Hitler called off the invasion of Great Britain in September of 1940 Hitler was ready to return to his true goal drive to the east By September of 1940 plans were being made for a massive invasion of the Soviet Union About 5 million Jewish people lived in the USSR
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