Dietary Supplements and Herbal Therapy
Dietary Supplements and Herbal Therapy FDNS 2100
Popular in Human Nutrition and Food
Popular in Child and Family Studies
This 28 page Class Notes was uploaded by alk88738 on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FDNS 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Tracey Brigman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition and Food in Child and Family Studies at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 04/26/16
Dietary Supplements and Herbal Therapy Introduction • Approximately 16 million adults use herbal products and/or alternative medicine • It is defined as those treatments and health care practices that are not usually taught in medical schools • It is generally not covered by medical insurance companies Introduction • Alternative: is defined as a treatment taken instead of treatments offered by traditional medicine • Complementary: is defined as treatment taken with traditional medicine • Holistic: means that the health care practitioner considers the whole person, including physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual aspects. Types of Alternative/Complementary Medicine • Aroma Therapy • Acupuncture • Chiropractic Therapy • Massage Therapy • Traditional Chinese medicine • Herbal medicine Government Regulation • The National Institutes of Health (NIH) established The Office of Alternative Medicine in 1992 to: – Evaluate alternative medicine – Develop a clearing house for the public • When a new medicine becomes available, side effect data is collected to know/regulate the guidelines for that medication or pull it off the shelf – Is it beneficial to human health? Or not? – Educate health professionals Government Regulation • DSHEA: Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act – Passed in 1994 – Defines that “dietary supplements” include: herbs, or other botanicals (except tobacco), and any dietary substance that can be used to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake are included in this definition – This new definition means that many substances that the FDA formerly classed as drugs or unapproved food additives have become available as dietary supplements Government Regulation • Dietary Supplements include: – Herbs and other botanicals – Amino acids – Extracts from animal glands – Fibers – Enzymes or hormones What you should know about supplements • Supplements do not have to be manufactures to any standard • Manufacturers don’t have to prove that their supplements are safe • Supplement manufacturers can put health claims on product labels Government Regulation • Dietary Supplements – Claims about structure and function are legal – Claims about prevention or cure of specific diseases are NOT legal – NO quality standards exist Vitamin Supplements • Look for a USP on the label • Means the product contains the ingredients listed and that it will dissolve or disintegrate in the digestive tract • Does not mean that this supplement has been tested for safety and effectiveness Look for the Label!!! Vitamin Supplements AVOID: • supplements that provide more than 10 milligrams/day – Except for pregnant women • “organic” or “natural” preparations with added substances are no better than standard types, but cost much more • “high potency” or “therapeutic dose”: more is not better Vitamin Supplements ALSO AVOID: • items not needed in human nutrition • “time release”: nutrients are incorporated into tissues where they are needed whenever they arrive • “stress formulas”: the DRI provides sufficient nutrients to meet your needs your stress Vitamin Supplements ALSO AVOID • Pills containing extracts of parsley, alfalfa, and other vegetable components • Geriatric “tonics”: usually low in vitamins and minerals and high enough in alcohol to inebriate • Any supplement sold with claims that today’s foods lack the nutrients they once contained Vitamin Supplements • Local or store brands may be both cheaper and as good or better than nationally advertised brands • Take supplements with food Choosing Doses • The higher the dose the greater the risk of toxicity • Chronic, low-level nutrient toxicity is a greater risk than short-term, acute overdoses • Don’t think that taking a supplement means that you do not have to eat properly Popular Herbal Medication History of Herbs • Earliest evidence of medicinal plants dates back to the Neanderthal Period. • 16 Century: Botanical Gardens • Early Colonial Days: Home Health Care • 19 Century: Herbal medicine deemed as quackery • 1960s: Increased used of herbal products • Currently: > 20,000 herbal related products in the US and has become a multi-billion dollar industry. Historical Uses of Herbs • Herbal use has been cited as “a sense of control, a mental comfort from taking action”. • Therefore, it is used to treat chronic/incurable disease such as diabetes, cancer, arthritis, etc • Additional Uses: – GI disorders, increase or decrease appetite, Cold/Flu symptoms, etc Popular Herbal Medication • Garlic • St. John’s Wort • Gingko Biloba • Ginseng • Echinachea • Hoodia Garlic • Comes for a garlic plant • Used to lower serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, improve circulation • Chewing or crushing garlic activates several sulfur containing compounds • May cause allergies, GI symptoms, interaction with anticoagulant drugs St. John’s Wort • Comes from a yellow-flowered weed • Used for kidney and lung disorders, anxiety , depression, and sleep disorders • May cause photosensitization, fatigue, dizziness, itching, and mild GI symptoms • Contraindicated with antidepressant medications to prevent additive side effects Gingko Biloba • Comes from a 200 million year old Chinese maidenhair tree • Used for Alzheimer’s disease, antioxidant, as a antidepressant, memory booster, and to improve blood circulation • May cause nausea, increased bleeding, headache, and rash Ginseng • Comes from extract of ginseng root • Used to enhance physical capacity, alertness, concentration, and combat feelings of lethargy (don’t want to do anything). May protect against tissue damage • NOT to be used by people with hypertension • May cause headache, insomnia, anxiety, skin rashes, asthma attacks, increased blood pressure, diarrhea, Echinacea • Comes from a purple coneflower • Used to stimulate the immune system, enhance the effectiveness of white blood cells in fighting bacteria and viruses – Used to prevent/relieve cold and flu symptoms • Currently there are no known side effects – Contraindicated for people with lupus or those who are HIV +, or other autoimmune disorders • Do not take supplement continuously for longer than 8 weeks When to seek advice about supplement use • Chronically ill • Taking prescription or over the counter drugs • Pregnant or potentially pregnant • Breastfeeding • Under age 18 • Age 65 or older • Unsure about the supplement or if you need the supplement Questions to ask yourself before taking the supplement • Do I need the supplement? • Do I know that this supplement is safe? • Does this supplement interact with any drug or food I am consuming? • Do I know if this supplement works? • Can I afford this supplement? • Do I know enough about this supplement? Summary • Websites – www.altmedicine.com – altmed.od.nih.gov/nccam
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