Nutrition 101 Vitamin Outline
Nutrition 101 Vitamin Outline Nutrition 101
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Counce on Wednesday March 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Nutrition 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Lori Greene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 75 views.
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Date Created: 03/11/15
RachelCounce Exam 3 Nutrition Chapter 10 and 11 Vitamins 339 Thiamin Vitamin Bl gt Function I Part of Coenzyme TPP I Assists with energy metabolism I Participates in conversion of pyruvate to Acetyl CoA RDA I RDA Men 12 mgd I RDA Women 11 mgd I Most Americans meet or exceed Upper Limit I No upper limit Food Sources I Grains I Pork products Deficiency I Beriberi damage to nervous system heart and muscle weakness I Alcohol impairs thiamin absorption and enhances excretion Toxicity I None noted 339 Riboflavin Vitamin 32 gt Function I Part of coenzyme FMN and FAD I Assist with energy metabolism I Both FMN and FAD can accept and donate Hydrogen atoms RDA I RDA Men 13 mgday I RDA Women 11 mgday I Most Americans meet or exceed Upper Limit I None Food sources I Milk and milk products I Grains I Green leafy vegetables Deficiency I Causes inflammation of mouth eyes skin and GI tract Toxicity I None noted Chapter 10 The Water Soluble Vitamins B vitamins and Vitamin C Chapter 11 The Fat Soluble Vitamins ADE and K RachelCounce O 0 Exam 3 Niacin Vitamin BB gt Function I Participation in actions of metabolism of glucose fat and alcohol I Protects neurological degeneration gt RDA I RDA for men 16 mg NEday I RDA for women 14 mg NEday gt Upper Limit I 35 mgday gt Food sources I Meat poultry fish I Grains I Legumes I Vegetables mushroom potatoes and tomatoes gt Deficiency I Pellagra Four D s diarrhea dermatitis dementia death gt Toxicity I Niacin Flush large dose of nicotinic acid Dilates capillaries and causes a tingling sensation Biotin gt Function I Metabolismas a coenzyme in gluconeogenesis fatty acid synthesis and breakdown of amino acids and fatty acids I Protects neurological degeneration gt N I N 30 mcgday gt Upper Limit I No UL gt Food sources I Grains I Soybeans I Egg yolks gt Deficiency I Deficiency unlikely I High consumption of raw egg whites 2 dozen or more per day may cause deficiency I Symptoms of deficiency depression lethargy red scaly rash hair loss gt Toxicity I None noted Chapter 10 The Water Soluble Vitamins B vitamins and Vitamin C Chapter 11 The Fat Soluble Vitamins ADE and K RachelCounce O 09 Pantothenic Acid gt Function I Part of Coenzyme A used in energy metabolism I Synthesis of lipids neurotransmitters steroid hormones and hemoglobin gt Al I AI 5 mgday gt Upper Limit I No UL gt Food sources I Meat poultry liver egg yolk I Grains I Vegetables potatoes tomatoes broccoli gt Deficiency I Deficiency is rare I Symptoms include Fatigue GI distress Neurologicaldisturbances gt Toxicity I None noted Vitamin 3 gt Function I Coenzyme involved in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism I Making nonessential amino acids in the body I Assists in making red blood cells I Vitamin 36 is stored in the muscle gt M I RDA 13 mgday gt Upper Limit I UL 100 mgday gt Food sources I Meat poultry fish I Soy products I Fortified cereals I Legumes I Noncitrus fruits I Vegetables potatoes and other starchy vegetables gt Deficiency I Results in diminished synthesis of key neurotransmitters and accumulation of abnormal compounds in the brain Chapter 10 The Water Soluble Vitamins B vitamins and Vitamin C Exam 3 Chapter 11 The Fat Soluble Vitamins ADE and K RachelCounce Exam 3 I Symptoms depression and confusion I Alcohol intake can destroy Vitamin B6 I Low levels associated with cancers and CVD gt Toxicity I None noted Folate Folic Acid or Folacin gt Function I Coenzyme involved in metabolism Helps with conversion of Vit 312 to a coenzyme form Helps with synthesis of DNA for rapidly growing cells I Adequate consumption in key during pregnancy gt Metabolism I Excess folate is incorporated with bile and sent to gallbladder I So it is excreted back into the GI tract to be reasbsorbed gt M I RDA 400 mcgday gt Upper Limit I UL 1000 mcgday gt Bioavailability I Dietary Folate Equivalents DFE amount of folate available to body in each food source Folate from foods is 11 Folate from supplements or fortification is 17 gt Food sources I Legumes I Fruits I Vegetables dark green leafy vegetables I Fortified Grain Products gt Deficiency I Replacement of RBC and GI tract fails I Abnormal compounds accumulate in the brain I Fortification as reduced deficiency I Symptoms of deficiency Anemia and GI tract deterioration Neural tube defects I Brain and spinal cord develop from the neural tube Spina bifida Folate supplementation in any woman of childbearing age gt Toxicity I Folate toxicity can mask a vitamin BlZ deficiency Chapter 10 The Water Soluble Vitamins B vitamins and Vitamin C Chapter 11 The Fat Soluble Vitamins ADE and K RachelCounce O 0 Vitamin 312 gt Function I Closely related to folate as each depends on the other for activation I Synthesis of aa methionine DNA and RNA I Bone cell activity and metabolism I Most Vitamin 312 is reabsorbed M I RDA 24 mcgday Upper Limit I None listed Food sources I Milk I Fish I Other animalderived foods I Fortified grains or soy products for vegans Deficiency I Most likely due to inadequate absorption vs intake I Symptoms Anemia and impairs cognition Toxicity I None noted Choline essential nutrient gt Function I Helps to make neurotransmitter and the phospholipid lecithin I During pregnancy supports the development of the brain and spinal cord Al I N for men 550 mgday I N for women 425 mgday Upper Limit I UL 3500 mgday Food sources I Milk I Eggs I peanuts Deficiency I None noted Toxicity I None noted Chapter 10 The Water Soluble Vitamins B vitamins and Vitamin C Exam 3 Chapter 11 The Fat Soluble Vitamins ADE and K RachelCounce 0 9 Vitamin C gt Function Antioxidant substance that significantly decreases the adverse effects of free radicals by donating an electron or two Free radicals are an unstable molecule Protects tissues from oxidative stress May play an important role in preventing disease Serves as a cofactor to form collagen Enhances iron absorption in the small intestine Some studies show no benefit to preventing common gt M RDA for men 90 mgday RDA for women 75 mgday Smokers 35 mgday gt Upper Limit UL 2000 mgday gt Food sources Fruits citrus fruits strawberries Vegetables broccoli gt Deficiency Scurvy Exam 3 Symptoms O 0000 gt Toxicity GI distress Diarrhea Bleeding gums Pinpoint hemmorhages Muscles degenerate Skin rashes Wounds fail to heal Teeth fall out due to weakening cartilage 339 Vitamin A gt Function Regulate the expression of genes Vision Maintains a clear cornea Conversion of light energy into nerve impulses at the retina Part of protein synthesis and cell differentiation to maintain the health of epithelial cells and skin Chapter 10 The Water Soluble Vitamins B vitamins and Vitamin C Chapter 11 The Fat Soluble Vitamins ADE and K Rachel Counce Exam 3 I Vitamin A protects skin from sun damage I Support reproduction and regulate growth I Participates in sperm development I Supports fetal growth I Beta carotene acts as an antioxidant gt RDA I RDA for men 900 mcgday I RDA for women 700 mcgday gt Upper Limit I UL 3000 mcgday gt Food sources I Milk and milk products I Eggs I Liver I Beta carotene Dark green leafy vegetables Deep orange fruits and vegetables O Apricots and cantaloupe O Squash carrots sweet potatoes and pumpkin gt Deficiency I Uncommon in the US I Deficiency symptoms would not appear for 12 years in an adult after I Minimal intake in the diet I Major nutrition problem in developing countries 250 million children have vitamin A deficiency 12 become blind every year I Night blindness is one of the first detectable signs Individuals lose the ability to recover from the temporary blinding of I a bright light at night I Total blindness Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable blindness in the world gt Toxicity I Typically only happens with high doses from supplements I Beta carotene causes yellowing of the skin but is not harmful I Suppresses bone building activity I Cause birth defects by causing abnormal cell death in the spinal cord I Accutanemade from Vitamin A but is chemically different 339 Vitamin D gt Two forms I Vitamin D2 primarily from plants foods I Vitamin D3 Chapter 10 The Water Soluble Vitamins B vitamins and Vitamin C Chapter 11 The Fat Soluble Vitamins ADE and K Rachel Counce Exam 3 Primarily from animal foods and synthesized in the skin UV rays from the sun hit a precursor in the skin and convert it to Vitamin D3 with the help of the body s heat gt Function I Hormone I Bone health I Assists in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus I May protect against tuberculosis inflammation hypertension I and some cancers gt M I RDA 15 mcgday I RDA 20 mcgday if over 70 yo gt Upper Limit I UL 20 mcgday gt Food sources I Fortified milk I Margarine and butter I Beef and liver I Fatty fish herring salmon and sardines I Egg yolks gt Deficiency I 10 of the US population is deficient and 25 are marginally I deficient I Outward signs of vitamin D deficiency are not common in adults I A Vitamin D deficiency creates a calcium deficiency Calcium would not be absorbed in the GI tract without Vitamin D I Factors that contribute to deficiency include Dark skin Breastfeeding without supplementation Lack of sunlight Not using fortified milk I Adults Osteopenia Osteoporosis I Older adults Common in the elderly Skin liver and kidneys lose their ability to activate Vitamin D Older adults typically drink less milk Spend a lot of time inside I Children and adolescents Adolescents Vitamin D deficient adolescent do not reach peak bone mass Children Chapter 10 The Water Soluble Vitamins B vitamins and Vitamin C Chapter 11 The Fat Soluble Vitamins ADE and K RachelCounce Exam 3 O Rickets Inadequate bone mineralization that causes bowed legs O Not common in US but common worldwide O AAP recommends supplementation for all children who do not receive enough Vitamin D gt Toxicity I Raises the concentration of blood calcium I High amounts of blood calcium can cause kidney stones Vitamin E gt Function I Antioxidant to defend against the adverse effects of free radicals I Thus may reduce the risk of heart disease gt RDA I RDA15 mgday gt Upper Limit I 1000 mgday gt Food sources I Vegetable oils I Margarine and salad dressings gt Deficiency I Rare I Deficiency is usually associated with diseases with fat I malabsorption I Causes neuromuscular dysfunction gt Toxicity I May interfere with blood clotting action of Vitamin K Vitamin K gt Function I Primary function is blood clotting I Synthesis of bone proteins I Bacteria in the GI tract synthesize vitamin K gt RDA I RDA Men 120 mcgday I RDA Women 90 mcgday gt Upper Limit I No UL gt Food sources I Liver I Dark green leafy vegetables Chapter 10 The Water Soluble Vitamins B vitamins and Vitamin C Chapter 11 The Fat Soluble Vitamins ADE and K RachelCounce gt gt Exam 3 I Vegetable oils Deficiency I Secondary deficiencyoccurs for other reasons than inadequate I dietary intake I Problems with fat absorption may cause deficiency I Antibiotics kill the bacteria in the intestine I Newborns are born with a sterile GI tract and thus their body cannot make vitamin K Given a single dose at birth Toxicity I Not common I High doses can work against Coumadin an anticoagulant drug Fat Soluble Vitamins Fact or Fad 1 2 3 4 5 Vitamin D is more important to the immune system than Vitamin C FALSE Vitamin A protects the skin from sun damage TRUE Consuming too much Vitamin E can cause cancer FALSE Your body can convert UV rays from the sun into Vitamin D TRUE When topically applied Vitamin K can improve blood circulation to get rid of the dark circles under your eyes TRUE Chapter 10 The Water Soluble Vitamins B vitamins and Vitamin C Chapter 11 The Fat Soluble Vitamins ADE and K
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