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ECOL 182R Plant Form and Function Lecture

by: Jenna Pimentel

ECOL 182R Plant Form and Function Lecture ECOL 182R

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Science > ECOL 182R > ECOL 182R Plant Form and Function Lecture
Jenna Pimentel
U of M
GPA 3.0
Introductory Biology II
Bonine, Hunter, Martinez

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About this Document

This is a copy of the lecture slides along with inserted text where parts in the slides are blank. Helpful details are noted at the left- and right-hand sides. Near the end is a general outline of ...
Introductory Biology II
Bonine, Hunter, Martinez
Class Notes
ecol, 182R, Ecology, Biology, evolutionary, plant, form, function, bonine, hunter, martinez, University, arizona
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This 34 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Pimentel on Thursday March 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ECOL 182R at University of Arizona taught by Bonine, Hunter, Martinez in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 139 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Science at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 03/12/15
PlanT Form amp FuncTion 24 Feb 2015 ECOL 182R UofA DZL Quiz Today K E Bonine Kevin Bonine PhD Direc ror of Educa rion and Ou rreach Biosphere 2 Direc ror of Ou rreach Ini ria rives College of Science Tucson na rive since age 2 Universi ry of Arizona undergrad BS Ecology amp Evolu rionary Biology BA Economics Universi ry of Wisconsin Madison gradua re PhD Zoology Evolu rionary Physiology Rep riles amp Amphibians Teaching of UA since 2002 Herpe rology Ver rebra re Physiology Conserva rion Biology Sonoran Deser r Discovery Environmental Biology In rroduc rory Biology keboninequota rquotuarizonaedu BSE113 520 626 0092 Wed 9301030am Field Ecology and Na rural His rory 2 Galapagos Ecology WWW1 ETiqueTTe eTc Please 0 r g o 3 53 C h H H 53 x39 C O39RN C kw 39 r Kora lt3 Cm EEKRN Hm 3 3 if m E r or a Q r G 39 Q C EU U Ubkg U U U U l U Ude by 3939 UUUUU x don39T TeXT message your friends do The crossword or read The Baper in class There are plenTy of much more comforTa le places Than This room don39T Talk above an occasional whisPer unless prompTed To discuss if you come in aTe or leave early kee your backpack 3nd paperrusTling To a minimum and on39T slam The oor pack up your belongings only when lecTure is over 3 PosTed LecTure NoTes See The lecTure schedule file under The conTenT Tab on your course DZL websiTe ITems in orange will noT generally be available on line buT They will be presenTed during lecTure Slides are numbered To synchronize your noTe Taking I will sTrive To posT The lecTure PDF file on your DZL siTe before lecTure I won39T always succeed WWW2 Academic Integrity E PRDHIBEITED QUEBECT 5 Students enrclle in academic credit bearing ceurses are subject te Cede Conduct E prohibited this Cede cunsists ef all farms bf academic dishenestgi irrelurling but net g39 limited ta 3 Q l Cheating fabricaticn facilitating acarlemic dishenestgs anti plagiarism as set nut 639 and cle nerl in the Shadent Cede bf Cenduct AEGRPelicy S EQSE CE1IE and F1 2 Submitting an item efacarlenaic work that has premierile been submitted or siniultanee uslyr submitted withuut fair citatien ef the erigjinal mark or autlrerizatinn by g the facultyr member supervising the stark 8 3 1iir39inlating required i clpllt l t y anti prefessinnal ethics rules contained or referencecl in E the stuilent handbeelrs Iljharilcnp jr er saline ef unclergrarluate er graduate pregrains or g prefessienal celleg es 4 4 Violating discipline speci c health safetyr clr ethical requirements te gain unfair g advantage in labfs or clinical assignments 3 5 Failing tn ebserse rules clf academic integrityr established by a faculty member fur a particular ceurse g 6 Attempting to commit an act pruhibitetl this Cede Any attempt tn cemmit an act 5 prehibited by these rules shall be subject tn sanctions be the same extent as cempletetl 3 g T39 As sisting or attempting tcl assist anetber ten tricrlate this Scale N 5 2 STUDENT RESPUNSEEI39IT Students engaging in acarlemic clishenestr diminish their educatien ancl bring cliscrerlit tn re 3 academic cummunitg Students shall net eiulate the Cede ef cadenaic Integrity and shall areid situations likely te cumpreniise acarlemic integrity Emailents shall nhsertre the generally 7 applicable pretrisiens if this Cede whether er net facultyr members establish special rules bf E academic integrity fer particular classes Students are net excused frem cnmpljf ing wi h this Cede because bf facultyr members failure In present cheating mltx Teamsr Today I Irrrmdummmmcplamk tmlmuzatnnaflnndl Hamstumufgelicrm ll Majolpianrgmupv kmnmmkrpianupcg Ellihmmscs L remandrtwrldarm39e Illuhecdplarc l ILI39amnncpcrmc Hingnmpcmm EHEFSLEE quot5 g 1 Ii 1 l t Blatant ufF ams w Flm ae a llnLes39lIull lqa CIInrnpl IfLeuEl qleEn nlqa Wp l m F 39 uI39IiLellulaI algae red at 1 NulwaL Lulnr phallh Lind Pl lh 2 CILILI miner Green nlklae to lam plalt lLi a hams E mu viv lf 15 anme exLluillrlLJ the n In plain Huilutrimr iIIIILweL Di qynmumg nm lead dulrlnlmlw 2 ll 1 5 Anqcmpenm E a 3 E u r e 3 3 E E E u 3i 6 I httppalaeoscomimagesglossaryevolutionofplantsjpg Focus on Angiosperms Most 97 angiosperms are in two clades cotyledons seed leaves monocots one cotyledon edicots two cotyledons Other clades include star anise and relatives water lilies and magnoliids 7 Angiosperm Lifecycle v39 15 Zygote develops into an ernbryo consist of an embryonic axis will become stem and root and 1 or 2 cotyledons seed leaves Cotyledons absorb and digest the endosperm some become photosynthetic Ovary and seeds develop into fruits Fruit protects seed and aids in dispersal eg can become attached to or eaten by animals 8 WWW4 Angiosperm Diversification 39 Ambaraiia E mm n 3 ancestar mi ig i angicsp erms iesl CEFPEISJJ 39 39 39 L gg g gdpermm Vessel I is Star EI IIEE seeds iiii39l irmt Ele menta 39 39 u Miagnuilliids v quot m Garpelsftuaed byW1 J J r tissue canneciian A Dnlliyr 0an Mancing f gt Paillem with gmwes Emdiicms liNTERNATIONAiL YEAR OF LIGHT 2015 Angiosperm Structure Shoot System Leaves petiole photosynthesis Stems elevate and suppor t Root System Anchor Root hairs take up water and Minerals 11 Morphological Adaptations Modified Leaves 9 Spines Thick bark allows trees to survive a fire that wipes our competition in some u species fire allows seeds to germinate 39 think pinesQ Waxy cuticle to retard water loss Tall stem to avoid herbivory 12 WWW6 coevolution tall cacti change in tortoise shell shape 9 Tall Waxy Cuticle Leanypes simple vs compound leaflets Gompnunld tztIJtnlglr mmpound Ell Figural ermnm sing a mu H mm 95 1 WWW7 Modified Leaves a nion Heavies 51mm fond h Aloe 1mm Femes stare water a Rea te ndri lia aid in climbing leaves that look red to look like the flower to attract p O I I n at O r S id aimiiij ip ii iiiinarture C Admniillnus mu Emmarquot RD 39 1551 Iirrji39i lmE4 u gi mendn Modified Siems a Cactus sitems sitier inmaten lib Staining produce new in Rhizomes pmduse new individuals at nodes indiuiiduais at nodes abovegmwmd belowgmmmdi Rhizome Ill f ilp39ijfl C m I39r I39MJ39 lkrIJMCICDFH MI J39jIPEFHEEI Modified StemsLeaves Inl i Siam L Runner EGYZS Bar39r39equot urnmum m mmm rmm mmv Inn1 31 4 7 a z m i 24 1 7 Root Types 3 Adventitious ROO ES from above ground stem 2 Fibrous Roots 18 W WQ Length 1mm Surface area Enmrn2 Volume Imm3 ength 2mm face area 24mm Iume Ermm3 2 face area 43mm2 lume Enmm3 h IE mm dth 4 mm Heigth 0125mm Surface area 133mm Volume vmm3 Mesqui re Roofs To i m C reaching to underground water 20 also store water from rain in their roots W Wm Saguaro Roofs 21 store water in their stem accordion ookcan expand to store more water y Netwrrrks MEK UITE a WW Z11 39 attenuated shouts had oi liill39 moi swims 291 of the gmuldl include ggmnsiw overlapof orator Shrubs roots don39t overlap because don39t want to competeQ Emmottd mat systems 7quot equot 39 httpimgarcadecom1creosotebushroots 23 King C e the 11 7OOyear4old in the Mojave Desert don39t need water for two years growing in a ring with multiple parts of it ground Q confirmation carbon dating of dead wood In sorl C Carb httpuploadwikimediao gwikipediacondmonsthumb336KingClonejpg250px KingClonejpg 24 carbon from underground don39t have to have surface area above ground Mangroves Live in salty habitat Z a i Roots in water with low oxygen content keep 3a away from Pneumatohores other stuff store in vacuoles and secrete on leaves 9 Salt Excretion 25 V WWWWES are run that grow out at water Liil39ld39 quot M39er the rest of the rents areswam Adaptive Radiation a Treessfized silverswurdl in Matliarmir19 siluerswurd P h 8 C plasticity I J Sinusitis Sh tiEj shert and j quottailand organisms with the same genotypes express differe phenotypes due to environmentsQ 27 Phenotypic Plasticity Grown in shade Girnwn in sun Where does the carbon we eat in a salad come from A The Earth C The Water D Fossil Fuels E None of the above 29 more abouT leaves quotI l Epidermis is important ou rer laye 6f leaves and s rems may con rain waxy cu ricle layer re rard wa rer loss specialized cells To allow for39 gas exchange and wa rer loss guard cells of s roma ra 30 WWW15 SEEDme open Eternal closed stomata Pore Guard cells 7 7 ingredients 39 Product open carbon dioxide brought in water lost Summ w n C C02 CHEO 02 Water Carbon Nitrate N03 quotOrganic Oxygen dioxide Phosphate PEEL1 matter 31 Iron Silica C3 amp see chap on photosynthesis Photosynthesis slightly different among different groups Acted on by natural selection C3 do better in temperate climates C4 do better in hotter climates even with stomata closed can fix carbon CAM is a form of C4 wherein the initial carbon is incorporated at night and the light reaction takes place the next day C4 and CAM help reduce during photosynthesis 32 sunlight doesn39t dry plant out bring in carbon at night W mim 33 vs 04 amp CAM If you placed These plonTs sidebyside oT noon in March and Then Took The TemperoTure of The leaf surface A Thei would be some Temp Why C cocTus would be cooler Because wifh CAM D need more Informal390quot phoTosynThesis sTomaTa closed during day and Therefore much less evaporaTion To cool The leaf33 Prickl Pear il l J l 4 Vascular Tissues xylem Distributes water and minerals from roots to rest of plant phloem Transports carbohydrates product of photosynthesis from leaves to rest of plant ingredients Product Sunlight 5 H20 co2 Nutrients CHl20 02 Water Carbon Nitrate N03 l Organic Oxygen dioxide Phosphate P04 i matterquot iron l Silica W WW Meristems Apical Meristems where plants get tallerlonger Sltes 01 pr39mary growth where plants get bigger girth Found in leaf buds Lateral Meristems Generate secondary growth at vascular cambium Including wood 2 xylem and bark 2 phloem Apical meristem i ii mum Found in tips of roots and stems 35 mmiam cm FrI r i39l DBL HFE Ea Figure 34M WWW18 HTErminal bud Epidermiis Gar ex 1 lijr ir39r naryr phlraann Vaaaular cambium 39Priimary xylem This year s 4 39 gmwlilh 39 lFi rin39Iar39jllr grav h Primary Galli Secandary RENEW Garlmambiam Periderm xylem Gama ll39rill39naryr phlaam Seanmam H phloem H quot Vascular Saars left by bud EGEIEE air mum tram previaus year 391 V Lateral laud SZCO ndar39y quotLealsaar GrowTh s7 Laat year39s 5 girlawith Saganclaw 9th 39quotIquot Grawth liram lwa 1 years agar Secondary Grow rh lrllm It a 39 m W EeERm 39 Reseallwalll Tr39ee rings are Tha r arises annually from vascular cambium Vascular Bundles xylem phloem amp vascular cambium in eudicots quottrn W39lm h an 39 Vascular Cambium for m growth 1 Lateral mis stems intcrease the width Meristem Cells Become 22233 2 Phloem to the outside J N 39 2 Xylem to the inside 3 war 3 War Cork Cambium HMO w W p39lijhl r m l39rjzulinr Imamtr lms51 l mgr1 Mostly produces cells to the outside comprises most of the BARK 4o 20 Vagcular amblum l1 la catera merlstems cork cambium and vascular cambium produce bark and would Clark Ccrk Gall39I IbliU 39l Efrlderm Phelloderm quot Cork camblum adds cells primarily to the outside Secondary phloem Vascular carnlblgm 1 Vascular camblum adds many cells to the inside and same cells to the outside Secondary xylem Rays of parenchyma cells sularamprk Cambjgm J r In 7 7 inner hm Cgmblum Sc39pwomd Hemlw00d 21 What is a knot in wood branch that grew in that area but was cut off later 9 Plants Transport of Water amp Sugar WWW 22 Video 352 Recovery in a wilted plant water taken in by the roots more water 45 pressure causes it to recover C Pressure Potential Wp aka Turgor Pressure Physical force of water either because of gravity or some other pushquot In plants water into cells meets resistance of cell wall leading to turgor pressure opposite of WW W m 23 a Sulllurte p entia l is the tendency m WEIET In mum by m i E jul patentialj inside CHEIi and m surmunc ingi E lilnli iE Plhe game Nd net Geld i3 llama in um um war12 r I15 5mm potential i5 law ra a m w ag surmundingjg OsmoTic m mam ant m water Water mmea inter cell v quota 13112975 7 GENE 11 K mg Emulate 1 ixquot Flare 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oi r39 from lefT To r39ighT Sequoia Redwood oldesT Tr39ees CoosT Redwood TollesT Tr39ees Douglas r Por39T Or39for39d Cedor39 SiTko Spr39uce 50 25 Xylem and Phloem Moving Water and Solutes HBO wmwams em I 51 Law waitar puutentiall Atmusphere w 52 MPH changes with hwmidirty C anally very law Lest mm 418 Mil53 Depends on trans irati h rate ow when situmarta are open Wafer moves from high Hsuut um xh pa pO l39en l39ial I39O Ma iumrhigh quotll 1 a MP gg fmm m IOW poTenTIal aw if extremely dry 52 High water puvtenti ai KimIVE DI Em laxgm Emma1 Fl my manna W Wzs Tension Cohesion Adhesion an Xylem tissue can act as a canal lainr tubal it Gaplillllaliritt39lgr results fmm three fumes l r 39 39tt r nmlrz ul a t the lEl Meniacula thin 7 u aga Mam 3139 E39Lll39lil f ll iquot ulluri tlmm Walter 7 7 T 7 x a v 3 V v39l V 7 39m 7 39 a it t tm V V 7 V t 43 will 1 v V m a L7 7 7777 77 7 l 7 i V I 39 7 1 V Yl quot 1H39EJFE il39 lfj t3939avrll 391quot uiisr39r 39rjz A 3939jquot 39u Result in Capillary Action 53 The water only continues to move if being pulled by transpiration 1 R001quot pressure can move water molecules connected water Shawl disTance together in a column from roots to eavespu each 2Capillary action can move other up in xylemy water short distance cohesiontension Can water from ground to top of Coast Redwood gt30039 54 27 Hydrogen bonding n wateii WaTer is a polar molecule and hydrogen bonds link waTer molecules TranspiraTi on waTer evaporaTing from leaf surface RGTBS Wlll be l llgl lZS39l39 when STomaTes are closed HumidiTy in aTmosphere is high TemperaTure around Tree is low Tree is in shade WhaT does This Tell you abouT Trees living in The deserT 56 W m 28 Why is wo rer Tr39on5pir39ing 1 Stomo ro open To get 602 Ingredients quot5 Product Q Sunlight iH20 002 Nutrients CHQO 02 Water Carbori Nitrate N03 Organic Oxygen dioxide Plios mohaie i304 mailer iron Siiica 5 2 STomo ra open for39 leaf cooling 57 EQ HESHADM39TiEHiSF DH THJEClFl ii P Emmy 39 1 masnph li To atmoapl iem 39 a 39 stoma 1i inside a ioari the area not occupied by sells i5 filled with moiai Emir Waiar di uoes Eh inside of tho in time atmosphem is watar exits the laaii the humidity oi tliio nances inside iim loaf dmm causing water to EVE FIDTEIE 39lro39m Elie mmiisoi that Hisl at lm airawaiber iniorl aoes 3 The resulting MansionI Emailed all the momisni pulls water lmm the surrounding mosoiphyll izizial l39 n which in turn pulls water out of the xylem 41Thnsionisimmsmitmdilmm water in loaf nyl am through 3mm alili Il39la way in mail xylem by dh i l i continuous hydrogen bondingh E Tenant an pulls waiterlrom marl cortex nails into mot xylem ETenisinniipull39siwafiier39l mm soili i39ntoimnts m rlj39l f g lhmmltmwln xmn A3 1in Ilmn W m 29 CohesionTension relies on a continuous column of oner from soil To onosphere of leaf surface Theory only really occepTed in 19905 Relies on very sTrong surface Tension ThoT resul rs from Tron5piroTion 59 Experi merit Emotion Eu daily changara Elm iamat rr or innIlia suppmi ilm cahnlunm39mlm HmDl39l39lgusis 39i39lrhnrl Emn pim imi is cm n g in rm midZr enough Intrusion 14 make Ir lnmkusaminhrslig ij39 305 ad 0 n Y0 U r39 r undersTonding of cohesionTension Theory why does a hhhh w free Trunk become 39 77 V Il39 quot rlmn plmllm la warning and should mm at nlghlg mnimiim sing1 Promotion m m hywlmm True IWMB ENHBFE only arm 5 narrower v during each day m i miom an grammar mm is undar amugh tension to wrl k tram hunks alligihitlyflh39hlls ohmt on mhasbwmmh 60 30 AdClP39l39Cl39l39lOl lS TO Desert Living Primary goal conserve water 15moll or39 no leaves bThick waxy cuticle c Thick epidermis d5tomoto on underside ofleoves Triohomesmiorosoopio 1 o increasa 3 L hairSboundary layer air won39t move as fastquot C1 leaf surface layer so airwon39t move as won39t lose water as fast C4 or CAM pholosynlhesis fast and water won39t get C at ioked away as fast onserve internal heat Role boundary When water lie available leavee deuelep rapidlyr and preeilde the plant with pheteeyrtthetle preduete During dryr periede the thorny leatleee etema at an eeetllle appear almeet dead HEEL Figure 351111 U mf w mi mmmwht Drought Decuduous see a In preVIous slide quotleaves that die offfall awayquot if there39s not enough water in the soiit rains can put on leaves quickly W 31 Getting amp moving water is free Getting nutrients and moving sugars or39ound costs energy ATP moving needed things 9 against concentration cohesion tension burn ATP and move protons gradient need energy outside cell moved things create new gradient to move other stuff like glucose across cell membrane use proton gradient to move something bigger like glucose protons can be actively transported at the expense of ATP against concentration gradient InSIde cell 63 httpswwwyoutubecomwatchfeatureplayerdetailpageampvij9PR9WMM Energy to get nutrients etc it prelim pumpgamma 39 V The idi m m In A 1 Ema art mummy the tilting loin iii ditliamnizas in H tnoi39tcia39i39lratltiiri charge muses H to tha tm39iapcirt tagainst an and Electric charge the catitim such as Kquot 13L madimtl pl rnem39larana atlaJ thiacail animamhaa l39inlmhepell Pl t h i I w 1 an S ave a m H roton quotmp i instead of a I against concentration NaK39ATPaSe gradient creates burn ATP move protons quotPotassium 39 7 mammal 1 n39P a 1 a 39 iai exchange K for electrochemical proton gradient to do Exchange H for K C WOFK or bring in or with w pull H with Cl 32 E 9 m E m E l During middle i of growing season maTure leaves vascsunar tissue provide quotHMS SUQGPS To photosynthesis in the leaves resT of planT r 39 3th Mature HERMES Transi ca an l sinks Source vs Sink 65 In MinnesoTa whaT happens differenle To movemenTs of sugars in early spring before There are any leaves Source vs Sink store starchsugar in roots during winter Develop I 9 C6 5 m leaves roots W m 33 Pr39oTon Pump ATP needed To move sugars from phoTosynThesizing leaf source inTo phloem and Then also from phloem into sToroge cells or growing Tissues sinks PrimIn hump HT Hi5 Hut Sucroseprawn i Faisal 39 v entrain rmer Move sucr39ose 7 gt7 i39 Tait 39 inTo cell AGAINST iTs concenTr39oTion arequot quotHEMP quot1 l grodienT Inside plhi Em Bell 67 Law H h Why does girdling kill a tree quotHematite a ring Di q Dark m girdle the Urea in the phloem above the girdle pausing swelling Orgahic Salutes accumulate AcTive xylem and phloem or39e jusT l under39 The bark If Tr39ee can39T Tr39onspor39T oner39 and corbohydroTes Then iT will die if you out both xylem and phloe will out water flow upward xer it and phloem all throughout in vascular bundles in palm Barkquot trees so not possible a Wood HE F giul39 1 3amp3 34


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