ECOL 182R Plant-Environment Interactions Lecture
ECOL 182R Plant-Environment Interactions Lecture ECOL 182R
U of M
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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Pimentel on Thursday March 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ECOL 182R at University of Arizona taught by Bonine, Hunter, Martinez in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Science at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 03/12/15
Plant Hormones and Environmental Responses lib the tips of a plant growing according to each color light turns only to blue light not the others DZL quiz 9 26 Feb 2015 ECOL 182R UofA K E Bonine 1 182 Success Tips 1 Online quizzes will be available for one hour once you begin them Only the first submission will be graded Questions with your answers will appear when you submit or automatically after 60 min and your total score will appear If you miss one you will have to figure out which question you missed This facilitates more learning on your part 2 Key Concepts Key Questions and an Outline are great things for YOU to generate from each posted lecture and the verbally supplemented material I present in class Please feel free to come to office hours with your concepts and outline for each lecture so we can discuss Again the goal is YOUR learning via understanding and retention 3 Exam material will be taken from the lecture notes and from what I say and emphasize in class Textbook material is helpful to you in that it provides more content greater detail context and another presentation of the principles and ideas suggest supplementing lectures with the text but it is not a requirement 2 WWW1 What is this plant doing ya knowchillin39 9 Systems Plant Sensory Systems Signals and Responses 39 Plants process information 39 Environmental stimuli affect ability to grow and reproduce fitness Don39t use things wavelength of light photoperiod time of organismsdon39tdedicate energy to developing day those things break your gravity mechanical stimulation touch or armd0n39tusei 0ra while becomes weak and WIHd small diseasecausing agents and herbivores4 W WZ Information Processing Monitor aspects of environment that affect fitness survive amp reproduce Three steps 1 a receptor cell receives an external signal 2 the receptor cell sends a signal to cells in another part of the plant 3 responder cells receive the signal and change activity appropriately STEPS IN INFORMATION PROCESSING External stimulus on receptor cell 39 quot5 39 rr quotInternal l 391 signal f quot1 Cellcell signal 39 I i 39 i r n Internal J signal krhi r r vll V 1 39A r 39 quotr 8 M 39 cellcell signal 1 Receptor cell perceives external stimulus and transduces the information to an internal signal from textbook 2 A hormone C released by the receptor cell travels throughout the body 3 Receptor cells receive the hormonal cellcell signal transduce it to an internal signal and change activity pain receptors send signal to body that this stimulus is harmful WWW3 why do on your eye is tr stimulus neurons light C Signals from environment received by specialized protein for that function like bat signals Receptor proteins change shape in response to a stimulus This causes the information to change form from an external signal to an intracellular signal translatio stimulus This process is called signal transduction the7body you see light when you tap eye cked by mechanical because send signal down that normally respond to w n of environmental external nto an internal signal that can understand Explain SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION to your neighbor Signal transduction in a receptor cell often results in the release of a hormone that carries information to responder cells 1 0393 WW 3b W13 0 r n quot1 quot39 W39squotx We 39 w in 54 H rst 9 7 r H Wm k il tty 0 IL V oli ll U1 3 39 J WWW4 When sensory cells receive a sTimulus They Transduce The signal and respond by producing hormones ThaT carry informaTion To TargeT cells elsewhere in The body Hormones produce a response by acTing on TargeT cells SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION 5 Shoots bend specifically toward blue light Blue Light The Phototropic Response Plants sense and respond to specific narrow range of wavelengths Any directed movement by an organism toward light is called phototropism Plants exhibit a phototropic response primarily to blue wavelengths Why blue light chlorophyll responds to blue light wavelength for effective photosynthesis y 11 Amount if light absorbed Photosynthesis Chlorophyll a and bAbsorb Most Strongly in the Blue Parts of the Visible Spectrum A Chlorophyll b g a a Different Chlorophyll a 392 aioserio differenf 39 quot irraveierigfhe ef fight 7 A7 i 403 SUD ED THU Wavelength of visible light llnm Auxin Phototropic Hormone The sensory and response cells in phototropism are NOT the same Blue light is sensed at the tip of a coleoptile protected shoot and info is then transmitted to lower cells Auxin a hormone is produced at the tip of the coleoptile is transported to the area of bending and acts as a signal Auxin promotes differential cell eongation in the shoot Auxin leads to cell eongation on one side of shoot Auxin moves to dark side If shunt lrss nf EEIL i alnngatinn r Shunt rims tuwa ssunlight Hurmsl size slls doesn39t have front axel that makes it easier to turn move one side forward and the other side MOBILE so that it turns parallel to one side with elongated cells and the other with NORMAL cells so that it turns W W Photoperiodism amp Flowering Flowering in response to changes in day length triggered by redfarred light Photoperiodism is any response by an organism that is based on photoperiod the relative lengths of day and night don39t want your flower out there unless there39s 39 39 h39 ll39 In plants the ability to measure photoperlod IS Somet mg to I00 mate your flower XDDD Important because It allows the plant to respond to seasonal changes in climate and the correlated availability of resources and pollinators 15 Phenology ABOUT US V WEH39WI39I39I39I U5 V EDUCATE V GET DATA V PUBLICATIONS V NEWS ANDEUEMT S V 1 What is Phenology I n r r l Phenology refers 130 key seasonal changes V g in plants andl animals from year to year I such as flowering emergence of insecls I j r a 39 and migration of birds especially 39liheir timing andl relationship with weather and v climate Phenology and Climate Change The ways in which the worldquot is respuncling to climate change are not well understood Pihenelagy is a great indicator of current and future climate impacts on people plants animals and our natural areas WWW8 Different Species Respond to Photoperiod in Different Ways different species respond differently to these different environmental cues Langday Shaftday ayneutral C shortmight lungnight nightrnlemtral l I IOVl El How do plants respond to differences in day length H Ulll plant plant plant rering patterns vary thrc ughout species maximizes fertilization rate 8 I E I 2 I ll Lpng day Youth Maturity and Aging The Growth Responses Controlling growth in response to changes in age or environmental conditions one of the most basic aspects of information processing in plants Hormones play a key role in regulating growth W WQ Cytokinins amp Cell Division Cytokinins are a group of plant hormones that promote cell division Cytokinins are synthesized in root tips young fruits seeds growing buds and other developing organs as you grow you need more Cytokinins regulate growth by activating the cells to get biggerC genes that keep the cell cycle going In the absence of cytokinins cells arrest at the G1 checkpoint in the cell cycle and cease growth 19 Cytokinins Affect the Cell Cycle Mitosis I Jquot aquot 3 DIVISION erytokinins promote expression of genes that start S phase DNA synthesis Without INTERPHASE cytokinins cells remain in G1 and do not divideO WWW10 Gibberellins and ABA Growth and Dormancy Two other types of hormones are also responsible for initiating and terminating growth in plants in response to changes in environmental conditions gibberellins stimulate growth abscissic aid AA inhibits v Liv I ll Elliiii n HHHH Il Hun W t 7 7 Ellswan F comm alumna alumnia H gmui i 39 v u i 7 V in El LE insulin and gluoogen in rumans K I Eiff Note ANTA39NISTIC Pairs 21 Gibberellins Stimulate Shoot Elongation Gibberellic acid GA is a gibberellin that promotes cell elongation and increases rate of cell division in roots 22 WWW11 Gibberellins and ABA Interact during Seed Dormancy and Germination Many plants produce seeds that have to undergo a period of drying or a period of cold wet conditions before they are able to germinate in response to warm wet conditions In many plants ABA is the signal that inhibits seed ierminationl and Video 343 Germination of soybean plants 24 During seed germination gibberellins activate production of damylase a digestive enzyme that breaks the bonds between sugar units of starch This releases sugars to the grOWing embryo make ATV 25 ABA Closes Guard Cells in Stomata In most plants stomata open in response to blue light allowing gas exchange during photosynthesis When stomata are open water can be lost if the roots cannot replace water lost at the leaves then the stomata close ABA from dry roots is transported to leaves resulting in the closure of stomata Therefore if not gonna dry out and die better to wait and closey 26 WWW13 Ethylene and Senescence Senescence regulated aging process The gaseous hormone ethylene is put in brown paper bag to ripen faster Strongly aSSOCIated ree conserving gaseous form of ethylene aspects of senescence In plants 9p 1 fruit ripening 2 flower fading 3 abscission Daddy gets 7 or worse Don39t be a parent It sucks 27 The abscission zone is a region of the leaf petiole that becomes 39 more sensitive to 1 ethylene as auxin levels drop As a result it degrades first and the leaf breaks off at this point 28 W WM Leaves Drop in Response to Signals from Auxin and Ethylene LEAF SENESCENCE AND ABSCISSION Healthy leaf 7 7 ge drought temperature gthetc redu e c I production from leaf where leaf was attached 2 Low auxin Cells in abscission 3 Leaf detaches at the 39 abscissi ooooo e zone become more sensi we 0 ethylene leading to leaf senescence 39 lfAuxin present no 7 WITHOU Auxin Ethylene response to Ethylene nesces leaf Note how hormones work in coordinated fashion 29 Overview Plant Growth Regulators 1 A single hormone often affects many different target tissues This means there can be an array of responses to the same intercellular signal 2 In most cases several hormones affect the same response Hormones do not work independently they interact with each other 30 W Ww Gravity The Gravitropic Response Gravitropism is the ability of plants to move in response to gravity Roots grow down and shoots grow up or out remember seed germination video root goes down and shoot goes up seeds are able to respond to gravity yp 31 Auxin as the Gravitropic Signal Root cap cells that sense changes in the direction of gravitational pull respond by changing the distribution of auxin in the root tip What did auxin do in the shoots response to auxin in the rootscauses roots to grow down W V WWW16 AUXIN AS THE GRAVITROPIC SIGNAL Auxin l in gt d39str39but39on l 1 Normal distribution 1 quot t g of auxin in vertical root prior to disturbance The Auxin 2 Roottip moved into 7 quot1 horizontal position Hypothesis for T 3 Gravitysensing cells G p S m g I actively redistribute the auxin more goes to 7 7 quot bottom side response of hormone depends on where hormone IS detected 4 Asymmetric auxin distribution inhibits cell growth on lower side and stimulates growth on upper side leading to bending Effect of HORMONE depends on where it is acting 33 Auxin39s Overall Role Auxin controls growth via phototropism gravitropism and apical dominance the belief that the highest organism gets the most light and has the most auxir C Fruit development is influenced by auxin produced by seeds within the fruit Falling auxin concentrations are involved in abscission the shedding of leaves and fruits associated with senescence aging 34 WWW17 Defenses How Do Plants Sense and Respond to Pathogens If a pathogen invades a plant the plant may mount a defense called the hypersensitive response HR HR causes the rapid and localized death of cells surrounding the site of infection starving the pathogen sacrificing piece of organism to get rid of pathogen 9 Other Responses too 36 W mws Video 391 Lepidopteran larvae feeding on leaves 37 Herbivory Secondary Metaboilites toxins things that are mac Primary metabolites involved in compounds prima homeostasis and typical cellular survivey function Tobacco makes nicotine Harmful to many herbivores le to serve as defense 39y metabolites needed to WWW19 Secondary Metabolites HormonesPheromones can Mimicjuvenile hormone stop molt to adult Attract your herbivore39s insect prey predator Warn other plants to mobilize their defensive cascades Poisons can Disrupt nervous system of herbivore 1 nicotine Disrupt digestive system of herbivore proteinase inhibitors 2 39 Nicotine Exerirnent on Mouse 1 l drop killed mouse 40 20 Many plant seeds and storage organs contain proteinase inhibitors proteins that block the enzymes found in the mouths and stomachs of animals that digest proteins When a herbivore ingests a large dose of a proteinase inhibitor it gets sick As a result herbivores learn to detect and avoid plant tissues containing high concentrations of these proteins 41 Pheromones Released from Plant Wounds Recruit Help from Wasps A parasitoid is an organism that is free living as an adult but parasitic as a larva Because parasitoids for example a wasp egg laid in a caterpillar39s body kill their host parasitoid attacks limit the amount of damage that herbivores do to plants Pheromones are chemical messengers synthesized by an individual and released into the environment that elicit a response from a different individual Plants produce wasp attractant pheromones in response to attack by caterpillars 42 WWW21 Parasitoid wasp Parlasirtoid Activity in Enlumological Society of America EiltIEritIE 559 httpszllwwwyoutubecomwatchvk0bnRVjXOhMampfeaturepayerdetaipage a attract nemated EXPERWENT Bern reete attacked Iby beetle fawae Attract the herbivo re s predator a4 at Larvae Stabbing Healthy Centre damage damage as that wilt attaek the larvae RESULTS Nematedee l39l39llll39la ad trite EEC t the arr1e taut far the I39t39tlizi t MIGVlad mm the leading te the laminaedamaged talent Larvae damage te reet Gentrai v n eihtamaber Central Etaibleirt dmag te t all nematodes put in central chamber w Healthy attracted to pheromones released by roots further experimentation by isolating the pheromone and releasing it in different concentrations C 45 V I Secondary Metabolites What is a secondary metabolite secondary metabolite plant pheromones used Jam 39 Seeendary Plant Metahelitee lead in Defenee in defense C GLAEE WFE Ft ltE EMMFLE Nitregeneentainfngi elltaleitte effect hereitere nenareue eyetern Nieetiine in tettaeee Gfly39eeeidee tFteieeee earanitte er euffur IDhuntn in eerahunt Phenetiee Teneenee IN enpretetnr amine aeide iFliatreneide Uuinenee Tannine falleneteneenee Seeeuiitereenee Stereide Pefytereenee eempeunde Dieru pt herbivere pretein etrueture Phytealexine ilnhi eit eernpeting plante been Deter heneieeree and miereeee ittany weede teneh ae eak ilneeetieidee Pyrethreiae in EhWEEJl39tthEmium Phytealeaine deter hennieeree lMiI39TIlG ineeet hierrnenee anti dierupt ineeet lliife eyel ee Feeding deterrent Ganatanine in jaEk lL Eaeeitlel in peppare Jeannine in walnut Geeeyeel in eetten euEetlyeene in ferne Latex in rubber tree W m 23 oakleaves 47 n SCOVIIIe Heat Scale capsaicinoids How Hot is that Pepper TYPE UFCI39IJIILES s wm umnmm momma 20mm53mm mm Pun Elp ikil V LLE Guild Pepper Spin bui Julnkii Sweet Belll 55311100 End Swim Muhamrni MENM i abmenu Fabiano Ancno lawmanm 39 i j d i l Enema I5mJ m Aride Serrano 2L 03mm Minna139 3 Sg ll39i 530 ch ITEllciw Emil a 39 Ialtjpc l tpprr ljme EM Lam2mm awe23m macawm Sun1mm magma sue mm manHi V Cayenne Thai Dat ll Fatam Orange Habanem Scotch Bonnet Guajiifltu Ifhnl wrm emu Pamummnlnnuchn A nahtlm Mimm Er hilt quotai39rda uaima IIFIIIIS uhllam Gemini5 Hal Chile be Fern rm Red Savina H NagaJollokia 400000 600000 800000 1000000 200000 Scolele Units C 24 Milkweeds Secrete a poisonous latex Swallowtail butterflies incorporate milkweed toxins into their own tissues for defense via bird learning 50 WWW25 Milkweeds Secrete a p0isonous latex Some herbivores learn to disable the defense cut the latex supply lines then eat the leaf Another example of an evolutionary 39arms race39 51 example in antibiotic resistance Cyanide CN Cyanide is a very rapidly acting toxin SEN used by communes for suicide In plants CN is combined with sugar as a cyanogenic glycoside Precursors stored in vacuoles get together in cytosol if plant is too much 0 anide can kill dama ed by wilting crushing or C chewing a More than 1000 plant species have cyanide in some form Aspirin Salicylic Acid common in plants Wellstudied in Willows SalX Used to combat many pathogens eg viruses Methyl salicylate a related compound aka 0 of wintergreen Volatilizes to signal other plants pheromone to defend selves Interment mm 39 i l quotwith Ed WWW27
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