ECOL 182R Animal Behavior Lecure
ECOL 182R Animal Behavior Lecure ECOL 182R
U of M
Popular in Introductory Biology II
Popular in Science
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Pimentel on Thursday March 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ECOL 182R at University of Arizona taught by Bonine, Hunter, Martinez in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 143 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Science at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 03/12/15
342015 05 March 2015 ECOL 182R UofA DZL quuz 9 K E Bonine Many Thanks To Drs Dan Papaj lt3 Molly Hunter Observations of Animal Behavior Around Tucson Hummingbirds foraging a r cer rain flowers bu r no r o rhers Lizards doing pushups a r o rher lizards or of you An rs moving back and for rh along a Trail be rween nes r and some remo re loca rion A black bee rle when bo rhered s randing on i rs head Why 1 3 1 342015 Male birds may have extravagant plumage and bizarre courtship displays Why 3 attract mates color and activity help females judge males39 attractive wellness do birds sing mainly males Whiteeyed vireo Kookaburra 4 342015 In 5 Arizona a specialized frui r fly uses walnut as i rs hos r resource clutch of eggs in husk Photo by C Hedgcock WOW fly males defend fruit and mate with females 05 They amve WWW3 342015 boxing males Terri rorial con res rs include a kind of boxing behavior Why Do Flies Box We can ask lots of questions about boxing behavior rm I i quot V 39 I mm 5 These questions fall into a few categor Wha r sensory s rimuli cause males ro box Mechanism Do They box be r rer39 WI I39h age or39 experience Development Does winning a con res r benefi r males Fund39s EVOIUtIOh Did ances ror39s of walnu r flies box 342015 Mechanism The physiological or39 neurological basis of a behavior39 Eg how does iT work DevelopmenT The role of age and experience in behavior39 Eg How does iT develop Is iT insTincTual or39 lear39ned FuncTion The adapTive value of a behavior39 Eg why has naTur39al selecTion favor39ed This behavior39 EvoluTion The evoluTionar39y hisTor39y of a behavior39 Where did The behavior39 come from in The evoluTion of This group These are called 9 Mechanism If we are inTer39esTed in The mechanism for39 a behavior39 we ask how is the behavior produced 10 5 342015 Mechanism Example Navigation in sea turtles Sea turtles use Earth 5 magnetic field to navigate in ocean Magnetoreception is a mechanism 11 Mechanism cont d Remember Signal Transduction address sensory organs and receptors br39ains nerves and neurons hormones Birgit Ehmer UH quotq 1quot a a a a If KM if HHK a quotM ML LH a I testosterone 12 W Wo 342015 Development 0ntogeny If we are in rer39es red in The developmen r of a behavior we ask how do age andor experience influence a behavior Development On39rogeny Example Nes r finding by beewolves Beewolves are wasps 7 342015 How do They find Their nesTs again HypoThesis When They leave The nesT They memorize local landmarks so They learn to recognize the spot 7 V i1 1 5 How do They find Their nesTs again Possible experimenTs 1 ExperimenTer mixed up The local landmarks sTones vegeTaTion eTc ff I 1 6 342015 How do They find Their nesTs again Possible experimenTs 2 ExperimenTer carefully creaTed a seT of landmarks and Then carefully moved Them To surround a spoT a meTer or so away DevelopmenT conT d Analysis of behavior developmenT mighT address Learning beewolf example habiTuaTion imprinTing role of social environmenT 18 342015 Function Example Infrared tail signaling in ground squirrels Squirrels like to flick tails Temperature of tail varies with nature of threat 19 Tail when rattlesnake present see tail in the print Tail when gopher snake present no tail evident 20 W m 1o 342015 Why The difference pit organ nostril Rattlesnakes can detect infrared USing pi r organs 21 Ra r rlesnake shif rs from preda rory To defensive behavior when robo ric squirrel signals wi rh ho r Tail Robo squirrel Bu r why does signal defer preda ror 22 11 342015 Hypotheses Squirrel with hot tail looks biggerAduIt squirrels that bite rattlesnakes not the target of rattlesnakes who favor tender and defenseless pups 2 Tail signal informs rattlesnake that squirrel has detected it Hypothesis 1 favored at present 23 Function cont d If we are interested in the function of a behavior we ask how does the behavior influence fitness of the organism Or influence the fitness of its genetic relatives What are the costs and benefits tradeoffs of a behavior 24 342015 EvoluTion If we are inTer39esTed in The evoluTion of a behavior we ask what is the evolutionary history of the behavior An analysis of evoluTion mighT map The behavior onTo an exisTing phylogeny or39 r39econsTr39ucT The phylogeny of The behavior39 among r39eIaTives 25 EvoluTion Ell absent l t Hastings i ptesenl t aqutmcal i A my am AMM HII l 7 t ammu m 3 a e A mwmmms spadiapmius A MEWS load it Womb rummum it tmaereglnae l I IIImItI lnlllllllllilllill ll r A pumar1er I r ill I 1 r 774 tragtodyi es Itliiii39liillil39iitlliilllllillll C I l NE W t 7 1 7 freesm e EvoluTion of echolooation in cave swileeTs mapped onTo a phylogeny WhaT does iT Tell us 26 can say that evolution and radiation 9p was made possible by echolooation W 13 342015 II Altruism Any behavior that benefits a recipient while incurring a cost to its donor Examples alarm calls in ground squirrels helping behavior in birds amp mammals sterile castes in honey bees ants and naked male rats 27 Explanations for Altruism pack mentality A Manipulation donor as dupe In other words altruism through ignorance 28 14 342015 Example Brood parasitism Cowbirds and cuckoos lay eggs in nests of host birds host bird raises parasite young cuckoo bird eats host egg before laying one of their own cuckoo bird egg hatches 23 days before host video eggs do monstrous young cuckoo tosses eggs out 7 I of the nest and grows so large that it no longer fits N3TNCTUAL5 the nest cries a famous ca demanding food and not gammy the host bird cannot resnst feeding It cuckoos 29 color of egg is the way it is to blend in with the host eggs 9p Cuckoos remove a host egg or two before laying their own Why 30 Reducing potential cues the host can learn so host won39t realize that there39s one more egg than they laid 9p 15 342015 Por39osiTe species have 39broken the code39 by which young are recognized by a mo rher39 bir39d Code involves feofures of egg and gaping response of baby bir39ds Differen r races of cuckoos lay eggs Tho r mimic Their39 locol hosT species 31 in Ii39lquot 3 iii P r p 7 7a or 3i I quotf 397 j IE1 Ii Vl Cuckoo egg o rcs orond chlin Then ejec rs eggs Why 32 W m 16 342015 lay more than one egg in case the others don39t make itquotinsurance eggsquot C Once hatched host keeps feeding its monstrous child Why 33 B Reciprocity 39you scratch my back l39l scratch yours39 This explanation takes the altruism out of altruism In other words altruism is really cooperation 34 17 342015 In olive baboons males form an alliance to pull females away from current mates Yet only one male gets to mate with the female Why does one help the other get the female 35 Reciprocity in Primates Cottontop tamarins give food preferentially to those who give to them 36 342015 Appara rus Tha r works only To feed The o rher39 monkey 1 Train ac rorquot Tamar39in ro always pull food Towar39d companion cooperafor 2 Train ano rher39 ac rorquot ro never pull food Towar39d companion defector 3 Pair39 Tes r monkey wi rh one of above Types 4 Tes r monkey la rer39 given oppor runi ry ro pull food Towards one or other companion 37 A quot3i fly in u I I ll I i 4 39Ac F n r A quotI ll 39 ill m n l 19 342015 TesT monkey pulled food more if They had experienced cooperaTion Than if They had experienced unhelpfulness39 08 Mean frequency of pulls per trial Helpful companion Unhelpful companion less than 12 ReciprociTy in Humans ReciprociTy is an imporTanT componenT of nonhuman primaTe social inTeracTions And a HUGE force in human socieTy Humans exercise a special kind of reciprociTy Termed indirect reciprociTy 4O 20 342015 Indirect reciprocity ReciprociTy in which The reTurn for o donor39s acT comes from someone oTher39 Than The r39ecipienT I39ll scmTch your back if others will scmTch mine in return C Kin SelecTion PropagoTing your genes by helping genetic relatives propogoTe Their39 genes 42 21 342015 N Belding39s Ground Squirrel Produces alarm call to warn colony of predator 43 quot0 Times Alarm Coll Mode 3039 4o 20 How many calls 0 depends on No Sister Daughters rerlatiivezs or on y who 5 nearby mother onrly 44 WWW 22 342015 Conditions for altruism towards genetic relatives kin set by Hamilton 5 rule benefit needs to outweigh the cost g b enefits to recipient bigger r more likely to C COST TO donor engage in that behavior y r coefficient of relatedness Relationship r motheroffspring 12 sisterbrother 12 unclenephew 14 cousincousin 18 45 Conditions for altruism towards genetic relatives kin set by Hamilton 5 rule Behavior evolves when the cost of the doror is offset by benefit to the relative a more distant relative requires greater benefit 46 W WWW 23 342015 quotI would lay down my life for 2 of my brothers or 8 of my cousins JBS Haldane Should he rbc gt1 If here cosT and benefiT equal Than bc 1 and 2 broThers 2x12 1 Then lefT parT of equaTion reduces To 1 which is NOT larger Than 1 Need to throw in a cousin Know The variables and The concepts behind Hamilton s rule I will noT ask you To do any calculations 47 Sterile Castes in Naked Mole Rats Naked mole raTs are African mammals ThaT live underground and feed on planT rooTs Are highly inbred leading To high geneTic relaTedness Breeding restricted to a single queen Mole rats are like ants that are mammals 48 24 342015 Sterile Castes in Naked Mole Rats Sterile castes perform different jobs including defense What evidence suggests altruism there39s a queen highly inbred so highly related don39t reproduce What evidence suggests kin selection 49 tunnelers work together to dig underground tunnelone uses teeth to chip away at earth another pushes dirt and videgrids of it at the surface soldiers rest so in case of an Naked mole rat The movie emergency queen has pheromone to suppress What were the different roles shown in mothers concentrates on colony reproduction and only when she dies does one of her wull go through multiple roles throughout females mature sexually their lifetime oldest3 male soldiers who get so tired mating they oIie 25 342015 III What are the relative costs and benefits of learning and instinct 51 Benefit of instinct Instincts are beneficial when mistakes are not an option Exampe hesitating instinctively at the edge of a cliff ducklings kittens human infants 52 for survival 9 W 26 342015 Exampe Ins rinc rive s ror rle response To predo rory silhoue r re by chicks In each example The firs misfoke could be your lost 53 Cost of instinct Instinctive behavior is inflexible This proper ry is some rimes exploi red by enemies Example Codebreaking in brood porosi res 54 W m 27 342015 ParasiTe species have broken The code by which young are recognized by a moTher bird Code involves feaTures of egg and gaping response of baby birds Gape of cowbird and phoebe 55 hosT BenefiTs of learning differenT Iessons in differenT environmenTs When red flowers have The mosT necTar a bee may learn To prefer red Am In a differenT meadow or laTer in The season iT may be a differenT color or shape of flower ThaT has The greaTesT reward 56 28 342015 Cost of learning Learning involves mistakes requires energy and brain resources The problem wi rh Trial and error is The errorquot egg 1 predo ror Tho r has To learn To avoid brigh rly colored prey risks being poisoned on his firs r Tos re39 57 W W 29
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