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NHM 253 Poultry/Fish

by: Regan Dougherty

NHM 253 Poultry/Fish NHM 253

Regan Dougherty
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Notes for 4/26
Food Science
Dr. Crowe
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Food Science

Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 253 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Crowe in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Food Science in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 04/26/16
Tuesday, April 26, 2016 Poultry and Fish Science - Types of Poultry • Chicken • Duck • Turkey • Geese • Guinea • Pigeons - Composition of Muscle • Composed of muscle cells and fibers as well as connective tissue • Does not contain intramuscular fat. Instead, fat is stored in the abdominal cavity and within the fat pad of the tail. • Pigmentation - White vs. Dark Meat • different amounts of myoglobin • The more the muscle is used, the more oxygen is needed. • Fat composition DOES not differ between white and dark meat. • function of myoglobin: receive oxygen from hemoglobin - The color of muscle is based on the amount of oxygen needed. - Why is the meat of wild birds darker than the meat of farm-raised birds? Wild birds are more active. - Determinants of Tenderness • location and activity of muscle animal’s age • 1 Tuesday, April 26, 2016 • heredity and breed characteristics • diet • influence of preparation - Inspection and Grading of Poultry • Inspection = mandatory - conducted by USDA - safety-oriented - ante- and post-mortem inspection • Grading = voluntary - quality-oriented - Grade A - retail sale; blemish free - Grade B and C - processed into poultry-based products • not necessarily less nutritious, just visually less appealing - Storage • Poultry is a potentially hazardous food because of its protein and water content. • concerns: Salmonella, Campylobacter • Low-temp storage for short duration - uncooked refrigerated poultry should be cooked within 3 to 4 days • ground poultry should be cooked within 1 to 2 days - frozen poultry can be stored for up to 6 months - Thawing Frozen Poultry • under cold running water • under refrigeration - safest/most economical option - Determining Doneness • minimum internal temp: 165 • Pop-up indicators - are they as reliable as a thermometer? 2 Tuesday, April 26, 2016 - Not always accurate. - Fish and Shellfish • Fish have an internal skeleton. Shellfish have an external skeleton. • Fish and shellfish are more tender because: - lower amounts of collagen - breaks down at a lower temperature, allowing for penetration of heat to the muscle proteins - amino acid content of collagen - more hydroxyprolene (which breaks down at lower temperatures) - muscle structure - shorter fiber bundles (teeth can chew them better) • myocammata (SP?) • Composition - Carbohydrate • glycogen which breaks down into glucose (contributes to slightly sweet taste) - Protein - Fat rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially omega-3’s • • benefit of omega 3: brain function and cardiovascular health • Pigmentation - Fish and shellfish contain myoglobin within muscle tissue just as in land animals. - Concentration of myoglobin depends on the characteristic movements of the fish. • red/darker flesh - high concentration of slow twitch fibers used for endurance swimming (swimming to far places) - more polyunsaturated fatty acids because they have to swim in colder waters • white/pale flesh - high concentration of fast twitch fibers designed for short bursts of energy - Higher fat content in fish darkens flesh - fat can be embedded within muscle tissues 3 Tuesday, April 26, 2016 - Astaxanthin - red/orange pigment with strong antioxidant capacity; found within shellfish and bottom-feeding fish • The shells of shellfish are processed into antioxidant supplements. • Inspection and Certification - Inspection - voluntary • conducted through US Dept. of Commerce and National Marine Fisheries Service - Shellfish Certification - mandatory • Was water suitable for harvesting? • Perishability of Fresh Fish - Fish Microbiology • Fish flesh is sterile (internally) • Bacteria on surface or in intestines rapidly invade all tissues upon death. • Bacteria in intestines are psychrotrophic (cold-loving) - Fish Physiology Upon capture, struggle renders all glycogen “spent” • • Glycogen upon death would have been converted to lactic acid and act as a preservative by lowering pH. - In the absence of lactic acid, bacteria are uninhibited and spoilage rapidly ensues. • Fish Fat Chemistry - Fish lipids are easily oxidized because they are polyunsaturated. • Unsaturated bonds are more easily oxidized. - Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) - phospholipid associated with fish fat that is oxidized to produce the odorous compound (TMA) of decaying fish. • Selection, Storage, Preparation - Signs of Decay 4 Tuesday, April 26, 2016 • eyes flatten, becoming concave • red gills become duller or become brown • fillets should be flat, shiny, firm, and free of gaping within muscle fibers - Storage • Fish is a potentially hazardous food because of its protein and water content. • Psychotrophic bacteria (like cold) limits the shelf-life to about 48 hours Frozen fish is a practical way to add fish to the diet. • - Testing for Doneness • flesh begins to flake along muscle fiber lines • White fish tend to be lower in fat than pink, endurance-swimming fish. • Mercury - There are other ways to consume polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy. Pen-raised fish can swim but they cannot swim long distances (so they will not have much myoglobin in their muscles so they are always fed astaxanthin for coloring purposes). 5


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