Environmental Studies 3
Environmental Studies 3
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This 6 page Reader was uploaded by Deborah Notetaker on Friday April 18, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 111 views.
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Date Created: 04/18/14
April 15 2014 Today s Music Theme Music from the lm Gladiator 2000 0 Bronze Age Iron Age 0 Autocatalytic process I Advances depend upon previous mastery of simple problems Technology precedes technology Gutenberg printing press I 1455 AD Johann Gutenberg German I Durable paper movable tile advanced metal work springs etc inks scripts standardized written languageall these technologies had to be in place before the printed press was invented 0 Metal fabrication I Bronze fabrication occurred first in Fertile Crescent 9 then improved to iron fabrication 0 Soft metal ore I Ex Copper gold amp tin o Furnaces I Needed to heat soft metal ores into liquid state amp boil out the impurities o Sedentary societies I Was necessary before metal fabrication could begin couldn t carry fumaces when the society is always on the move 0 Copper gold tin I These are soft metal ores combined to make bronze 0 Bronze I Bronze was invented first in the Fertile Crescent because society was most organized in 4000 BC I 2000 BC it came to China I Bronze was much better than Stone Bronze can be shaped and molded 9 used to make weapons swords lances shields wagons chariots shovels plows chisels ships statues pots goblets etc also used to make coins made societies more materialistic o Artisan class 0 Iron ore I Iron age began in Eurasia 900BCE Came to China in 500 BC I Iron could be molded but was still brittle I Iron ore 9 after boiled and cooled made stronger than bronze 0 Industrial Revolution I Developed steel Iron blown air to make an even purer substance 0 Germs Iron and Guns I Diamond titles the book Guns Germs and Steel but he is really referring to Iron 0 0 Greece Heavily in uenced by previous ancient societies considered one of Diamond s power societies 0 O Minoan culture I Was centered on the island of Crete I Heavily in uenced by Egyptian culture I Bronze age society Mycenaean culture I Heavily in uenced by Mesopotamia culture I came in contact with the Minoan culture in 2000 BCE I Very Warlike with horses amp raiders I Bronze age society Mycenaen Minoan Greek culture Crete Sheep goats pigs cows horses Wheat barley rice grapes olives I Greeks did not have the same cereal cultivation as Mesopotamia Egypt etc because their soil was not as good and their farms were smaller 45 acres I grapes amp olives grew Wildly in Greece and so they were cultivated I Wine produced by the Greeks I alcohol Was only invented with sedentary societies I They had plenty of wine drank Wine more often than Water Homer Herodotus Aristotle Plato Pythagoras Archemedes I Because the Greeks had plenty of resources they had plenty of time to advance in thinking I Homer great poet I Herodotus historical Writer I Aristotle founder of logic great philosopher I Plato founder of discourse I Pythagoras founder of geometry I Archemedes advances in mathematics Periclean Athens I Named after Pericles a general who united the Greek city states I The Wars disappeared and Greece developed into their Golden age Democracies slaveocracies I Greek democracies voting I Slaveocracies slaves were in control of citystates slaves were based on birth Pericles State level culture I Power state level government highly organized amp highly educated 0 Greek nature worship I Developed during Greek s Golden Age I Because Greece could just gather their food because of their mild climate I Minoan culture had nature worship as well I Polytheistic believed in many gods amp goddesses come down to earth and have children with mortals Many gods of nature Film clip Monty Python 1982 Brian born the same Day as Jesus in Judea 33AD April 17 2014 Today s Music Enigma MCMXC 1992 Midterm May 1 Major IDs 50 2 in all and 3 in each choose 2 to write about Essay 48 Film Clip amp Walk in music mult choice 2 Tuesday April 29 9 Bring 3 large blank no names to class for midterm amp final inclass review that day 0 Roman Empire 700 BCE o Greco Roman times I Romans conquer the Greeks I A lot of transference in culture politics etc from Greeks to Romans I Similar polytheistic religion as from the Greeks 0 Legend 1 Numitor Amulius I Amulius wins the power struggle Numitor amp Amulius were brothers I All of Numitor s sons were killed but Numitors daughter was told to be a virgin o Rhea Silvia AresMars I Rhea Silvia Numitor s daughter the god AresMars sleeps with her 0 Romulus and Remus I They Rhea Silvia Ares had twin sons Romulus amp Remus o Tiber River 0 She wolf I Saves Romulu amp Remus amp Romulus amp Remus was raised by a den of wolves I The wolves bring a shepherd to Romulus amp Remus and they find out who these twin boys are they raise an army to defeat Amulius 0 Legend 2 Aenas Venus King I Demigod Aenas I His mother is Venus o Latinus Latium I Aenas marries the daughter of Latinus King of Latium o Latins and Etruscans I Unites Latins amp Etruscans 0 Roman paganism 0 Latin I Roman s developed their language Latin I Today French Spanish etc come from Latin 0 Architecture I Roman Coliseum inherited the architecture from Greeks who got it from the Egyptians from Mesopotamians I Build aqueducts roads baths etc I They built practical structures to boost economy 0 ZeusJupiter HeraJuno I Romans set their own names for the Greek gods I gods of nature 0 Statelevel empire I Statelevel empire from the beginning I Air amp Water pollution from the Roman Empire 0 Environmental manipulation I They used animals for gladiatorial events Romans Were very ambivalent to nature they worshiped nature but also manipulated nature 0 Pax Romana I Roman Peace 20BC to 200AD I They were still expanding during that time expanding into Britain I Pax Romana ends after Romans have bad rulers corrupted system of govt o Barbarians I Non Romans Came to push Romans from north to south I Sacked the Romans in late 40OAD o Huns I Came in 467 AD I Roman Empire fell in part due to environmental reasons overuse of resources 0 PolytheismMonotheism o Paganism I A specific branch of Polytheism many gods I Refers to religion from around EurasiaRome o Henotheism I Only Worship one god but acknowledge the possible existence of other gods I Worshipping Zeus as the king of the gods but there are many gods 0 Akhenaton I The Aton the sun god 9Egypt an example of Henotheism worshipping Aton Akhenaton a Egyptian ruler tried to get Egypt to only worship Aton I Queen Neferiti wife of Akhenaton o Dualism I Belief that there are 2 parts of this world amp they are battling eachother usually a good amp bad deities I Ex spiritual world against physical world etc o Gnoticism I Gnosis greek word means knowledge I Dualism 9 I Gnotic text Gospel of Judas I Physical is bad and Spiritual is good 0 Zoroastrianism I based on the prophet Zoroaster Zarathustra I one of the world s largest religion I Ahura Mazda 0 Manichaeism I 3rd example of dualism I Found by Mani o The Hebrews I Nomadic enslaved by the Egyptians for a time I Named Israelites Monotheism I They were henotheism acknowledged that there were other gods but only worshiped one they then developed montheism I 6th 7th amp 8th century united the people under their monotheistic beliefs 0 Death amp the Afterlife I Christianity 0 People of the Book 0 Judaism Christianity amp Islam I The 3 great monotheistic relgions 0 Abraham I Father of great nations 0 Covenant I The promise between the Jews and God the promise that they were the chosen people 0 The Hebrew Bible 0 Old TestamentNew Testament I The division of the bible o Torah Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy 0 Creation Story I Genesis 12630 I Illustrates how man was given control of the land gives power and responsibility o 613 Commandments I The Torah contains these commandments 0 Jesus of Nazareth I Jewish teacher emphasized not the rules of the Bible but the spiritual basis 0 Gospel I The Good News 0 Paul of Tarsus I A Jew never met Jesus but had a vision of Jesus I Became a missionary for Jesus and converted I His message was focused on the Gentiles I He was telling people who were not part of the covenant those who weren t Jews that they did not have to follow the 613 commandments they did not have to follow the dietary restrictions or be circumcised to be saved 0 The Codex I The prototype of the modern book We use today I Composed of papyrus and bound in leather Christianity became the staple religion of the Romans The religious view that supports environmental manipulation
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