SPAU 3304: WEEK 15
SPAU 3304: WEEK 15 SPAU 3304
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPAU 3304 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Garst in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Communication Sciences in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 04/26/16
Finishing Production/Perception of Vowels (think resonance) Ways to think about Resonating Cavities o Modeled as two tubes: Pharyngeal Cavity Oral Cavity Larger Resonating Spaces = lower formant frequency Longer Vocal Tract “tube” = lower formant frequency Another way… The “infinite tube” model o Modeled as a series of unlimited number of tubes Formants of “ee” in spectrum and spectrogram – tongue high and front Review: F1 Inversely related to jaw height – volume of pharyngeal cavity o Relatively low value (towards the bottom of spectrogram); true for all vowels F2 Directly related to tongue fronting – length of oral cavity o Relatively high value (related to frequency (Hz)); **Longer tube = lower resonant frequency Vowel Formants Systematic relationship (with vowels and formants) Front Vowels: o F1 and F2 far apart o F2 and F3 close together Back Vowels: o F1 and F2 close together (oral and pharyngeal space closer in volume) o F2 and F3 further apart Vowels Across Speakers » Relative patterns of formant values are consistent across speakers » Absolute formant values vary across speakers: o Overall vocal-tract length differences o Parts of the vocal tract may differ in size (ex: pharynx) o Dialect and idiolect differences Normative Data No absolute values for F1, F2, F3 exist F1 – F2 relationship: relative frequencies How to describe Vowels: » Tenseness tense to lax o Tense Vowels: e.g. [i e o u]: Involve more extreme articulations Have longer durations Can occur in open syllables (e.g., CV); “bee” May be diphthongized (e.g., [el oU]); putting two vowels together o Lax Vowels: Have less extreme articulatory postures Are shorter in duration Occur only in closed syllables (e.g., CVC) » Monothongs vs. Diphthongs o Diphthongs (Ex: “boy”, “say”, “tie”, “wow”, “no”) Two vowels within the same syllable nuclei Smooth glide from one vowel to the next 5 common diphthongs in American English Onglide – articulatory starting position for diphthong Offglide – ending articulation point Vowels in Clinical Populations (vowels more preserved in stroke patients typically) - Vowel space in postlingually deaf speakers: o Constrained jaw and tongue positions o Smaller range formant values - Foreign accents may involve errors in vowel production Targets: 1. Articulatory (vocal tract shape) 2. Acoustic (auditory targets) - Visual feedback (e.g., via spectrograms) may help speakers improve vowel production Production and Perception of Consonants Part 1: Consonants (Stops and Fricatives) o One or more areas of relative constriction of the vocal tract Source of Sound: o Voiced o Turbulent airflow Coarticulation: - Any sound is influenced by the phoneme immediately preceding and following it (or coming up) - Coarticulation = Simultaneously articulating more one phoneme. - Coarticulation is essential to the perception of certain consonants. - Types: o Anticipatory (forward) Coarticulation Ex: “Sue”; already rounding lips for the “oo” during the “s” o Retentive (backward) Coarticulation Ex: “Toots”; /s/ produced with lip rounding left over from the “oo” Vowel Transitions Between o Vowel and consonant (VC) onglide o Consonant and vowel (CV) offglide Phonetic Description of Consonants: Place of articulation o Bilabial (lips come together) o Tongue + fixed point of articulation o Pharynx/glottis (“h”); that turbulence sound Manner of articulation // Manner of airflow o Complete vs. Transient Cessation of airflow o Constriction with continuous airflow Voicing o Voiced or unvoiced