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CHEM 110, Week 1 & 2 Notes

by: BritneyMoore

CHEM 110, Week 1 & 2 Notes CHEM 110

CSU Pomona

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About this Document

These notes cover elements, the periodic table, atoms (protons, neutrons, and electrons), isotopes, electronic transitions, quantum mechanics, and electronic configuration.
Chemical Principles I
Dr. Hoda Mirafzal
Class Notes
General Chemistry
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by BritneyMoore on Tuesday April 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 110 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Dr. Hoda Mirafzal in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Chemical Principles I in Chemistry at California State Polytechnic University.


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Date Created: 04/26/16
CHEM 110 04/13/2016 ▯ Elements  Pure substances that cannot be separated into different substances by ordinary processes  The building blocks of matter  118 elements known today ▯ Symbols from Latin Names  Cu = Copper  Au = Gold  Fe = Iron  Pb = Lead  Hg = Mercury  K = Potassium  Ag = Silver  Na = Sodium  Sn = Tin ▯ Major elements in the body:  Oxygen 65%  Carbon 18%  Hydrogen 10%  Calcium 1.4%  Phosphorus 1%  Magnesium .5% ▯ Periodic Table  An arrangement of the elements according to similarities in their chemical and physical properties ▯ Groups of Elements  Vertical columns on the periodic table have similar physical and chemical properties  Group 1: Alkali Metals  Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals  Groups 3-12: Transitional Metals  Group 17: Halogens  Group 18: Noble Gases ▯ Periods of Elements  Horizontal rows on Group 1 to Group 8A do NOT have similar properties ▯ Metals and Non-metals  Metals are located to the left of the heavy, stair-step line. They are shiny, ductile, and good conductors of heat and electricity  Non-metals are located to the right of the heavy, stair-step line. They are dull, brittle, poor conductors of heat and electricity, but are good insulators. ▯ Atomic Theory  Atoms are building blocks of elements  Atoms in each element are similar and differ from atoms of other elements  2 or more different atoms bond in simple ratios to form compounds ▯ Subatomic Particles Particle Symbol Charge Relative Mass Electron e- -1 0 Proton p+ +1 1 Neutron N 0 1 ▯ Atomic Number  The number of protons in an atom  All atoms of an element have the same number of protons (same atomic number) ▯ Mass Number  The number of protons and neutrons in an atom ▯ Atomic Symbols  Show the mass number and atomic number  Gives the symbol of the element ▯ Number of Electrons  Atoms are neutral, so the net charge is 0  The number of protons = the number of electrons  Atomic number- number of electrons ▯ Isotopes  Atoms with the same number of protons (same atomic number), but different number of neutrons (different mass number) ▯ Atomic Weight  The weighted average mass of all the atomic masses of the isotopes of that atom o Depends on the source of the element o Value given on the periodic table is the average table is the average of the terrestrial environment ▯ Characteristics of Electrons  Extremely small mass (9.1 X 10^-31 kg)  Located outside the nucleus  Move at extremely high speeds (about 7 mill. km/h in the H atom) ▯ Bohr Model of the Atom  1 model of the electron structure  Incorrect today, but helps us to understand the atom  Electrons can only be found in certain orbitals (energy levels)  Bigger orbital = higher in energy  Electrons are able to jump between energy levels ▯ Electron Transitions  When an atom absorbs light or when it is heated, energy is absorbed and an electron jumps up to a higher energy level  When an atom emits light, energy is emitted and an electron jumps down to a lower energy level  Jumps in energy levels for electrons are called electronic transitions  Because the energy spacing between orbitals in each element is unique, the colors of light that each element absorbs or emits is also unique  The color of light depends on the energy ▯ Quantum Mechanics  Describes the arrangement and space occupied by electrons in atoms ▯ Electronic Energy Levels (shells)  Contain electrons that are similar in energy and distance form the nucleus st  Lowest energy electrons are closest to the nucleus (the 1 shell is lowest in energy)  Maximum number of electrons in any electronic energy level =2n^2  Shell 1: n=1, 2(1)^2= 2 e-  Shell 2: n=2, 2(2)^2= 8 e-  Shell 3: n=3, 2(3)^2= 18 e-  Shell 4: n=4, 2(4)^2= 32 e- Order of Electron Filling in Shells  All electrons in the same energy level have similar energy  Order of filling for the 1 36 electrons Shell # 1 2 3 4 3 4 2e- 8e- 8e- 2e- 10e- 6e- ▯ Electronic Configuration  Lists the shells containing electrons, written in order of increasing energy Element # e- Shell 1 2 3 4 He 2 C 2 4 F 2 7 Ne 2 8 Al 2 8 3 Fe 2 8 14 2 ▯ Valence Electrons  The electrons in the outermost shell ▯ Periodic Law  All the elements in a group have the same electronic configuration in their outermost shells (same number of valence electrons) because elements in a group have similar properties ▯ ▯ ▯


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